Friday, December 27, 2019

Meaning Of Preparation On Cooking - 1678 Words

Name__Nhi Tran___ NDFS 375 Salad Prep Worksheet The Meaning of Preparation On Cooking (OC, pg 150-151) 1. Apply the principle of â€Å"mise en place† to your rotation in salads. Explain mise en place in making a BLT sandwich. - Mise en place: gathering and prepping the ingredients to be cooked as well as assembling the tools and equipment necessary to cook them. a. Salads - Gather different types of greens/fruit/pasta/garnish/dressings that can go into the salad. - Gather mixing bowls, knives, tongs, pans, chopping board, etc - Depends on what kind of salad, preparing the ingredients (for example, if the salad requires pasta, gather pasta and cook it) - When all ingredients are ready to be used, put the ingredients in the mixing†¦show more content†¦4. Explain how each of the following components are essential to a pleasing plate arrangement: - Shape: combine a variety of shapes on the plate, simple shapes artfully combined so that it doesn’t appear as confusing. - Color: foods of different colors should be presented together. Generally, the colors should provide balance and contrast. - Texture: foods with different textures look more exciting. Sensation perceived when eating a food as well as the appearance of the surface of the food. - Arrangement: balanced and unified composition (without overcrowding or too sparse) 5. List three guidelines for arranging foods on a plate. - Strike a balance between overcrowding the plate and leaving large gaps of space. Foods should not touch the plate rim nor necessarily be confined to the very center. - Choose a focal point for the plate, to which the eye is drawn (usually the highest point on the plate). Design the plate with the highest point to the rear or center. Avoid placing foods of equal heights around the edge of the plate, leaving a hole in the center—the eye will naturally be drawn to that gap. - The plate’s composition should flow naturally. For example, make the highest point the back of the plate and have the rest of the food become gradually shorter toward the front of the plate. Slicing and fanning foods can attract the eye and help establish flow. Sandwiches (OC, 788-790, 792-794) 6. What are the three majorShow MoreRelatedFilm Commentary on Hakka Stuffed Bitter Melon715 Words   |  3 PagesStuffed Bitter Melon, as an example to elaborate some of the concepts about food covered in Anthropology. The symbolism of food, inheritance of food among the community, correlation between food and identity, and the gender stereotypes in food preparation are to be included in the video and would be discussed in this commentary. Firstly, traditional food or eating practices are related to the building of self-identities. According Tam (2002), Yum Cha (é £ ²Ã¨Å' ¶) carries the symbolism of the spirits ofRead MoreCooking as an Art Form1414 Words   |  6 PagesCooking As an Art Form Food, cooking, and whatever related to these themes are usually considered as an art because food is an everyday item that has a wide meaning for all people. Food can be considered as an art; for example: the decoration of a food, the way a food is constructed in the plates, or even the way many different foods are being mixed in order to create a new food. Sometimes even people consider the arrangement of plates in a table as an art. This is called Table Art. Brillat-SavarinRead MoreEssay on Food, Sex, Love in Like Water for Chocolate1613 Words   |  7 Pagesperspective. Esquivel uses the preparation, eating, and serving of food as a connection to love and sex, and as humans we have learned, through culture, to make this connection. Structured in twelve chapters, each representing a month of the year, Esquivel has created an entrancing love story that is sprinkled with culinary enchantments around every corner. Each chapter is prefaced with a recipe that is relevant to the progression of the novel, not to mention the many cooking tid-bits thrown in throughoutRead MoreWhen Mr Pirzada Came To Dine Analysis702 Words   |  3 Pagespresented in every story within this book is traditional Indian food and their nuances. The presence of food symbols metaphorizes different interactions between the protagonists of Lahiri’s stories, such as love, community, and culture. And the effects, meaning, and implications of food is the most prevalent in â€Å"When Mr. Pirzada Came to Dine† and â€Å"A Temporary Matter†. In â€Å"When Mr. Pirzada Came to Dine†, food symbolism is being emphasized throughout the entire story. When Mr. Pirzada arrives at Lilia’s houseRead MoreSoutheast Asia1508 Words   |  7 PagesSoutheast Asian Countries Philippines Malaysia Vietnam Thailand Singapore Indonesia Philippine cuisine consists of the foods, preparation methods and eating customs found in the Philippines. The style of cooking and the foods associated with it have evolved over several centuries from its Austronesian origins to a mixed cuisine with many  Hispanic, Chinese, American, and other Asian influences adapted to indigenous ingredients and  the local  palate. Dishes range from the very simple, likeRead MoreResearch of Culinary Arts1611 Words   |  7 Pagesvegetables appeared. Pasta creations became filled and layered such as lasagne, ravioli, and manicotti. 16th Century The history of French ascendancy in the culinary arts is traced to the Italians. The French were largely ignorant of fine cooking until Catherine de Medici arrived in France to become the bride of the future King Henri II. In her entourage included Italian cooks who introduced various methods and food items. Catherine de Medici Was came from the wealthiest families duringRead MoreCreole Essay1038 Words   |  5 PagesCreole What is a Creole? The word Creole means many things to many people. It derives from the Latin word â€Å"Creare,† meaning â€Å"to beget† or â€Å"create.† The Webster dictionary says a Creole is a â€Å"white person descended from the French or Spanish settlers of Louisiana and the Gulf States and preserving their characteristic speech and culture.† Creoles, a term first used in the 16th century in Latin America to distinguish the offspring of European settlers from Native Americans, blacks, andRead MoreBarbeque Essay1036 Words   |  5 Pagesnew way of cooking was so foreign to the men that they did not know whether to see it as good or bad. Andrew Warnes (Author of Savage Barbecue) suggests that Columbus and other Europeans ‘ignored, misheard, misconstrued, or otherwise stated their authority over native tongues’ (pg.19). They associated the english word ‘barbarian’ with the ‘barbe’ sound that many indians and caribbeans used in their native language. It is believed that they reconstructed the native word ‘barbacoa’, meaning a frameworkRead MoreCultural Assessment for Nursing Essay791 Words   |  4 Pages I was born and raised in the Philippines. I identify myself with the Filipino culture. I chose to learn about the Mexican culture, so I have interviewed my coworker. The interview was focused on the meaning of food in their culture and its impact on their health. When asked about the meaning of food, Estella and Betty both associated it with family gatherings, holidays, and celebrations wherein food brings people together. They celebrate Christmas, Quinceneras (when a girl is considered a youngRead MoreAn Evaluation Of An Occupational Therapist, Registered ( Otr ) Essay1038 Words   |  5 Pagesmotivated to partake in therapy and the value of intervention will become more enriched (Tombly, 1995). Moreover, Tombly (1995) stated only meaningful occupation is what remains in one’s repertoire of skills as the body is primarily guided by the meaning communicated to them by the mind. Meaningfulness is dependant on one’s perception of reward, pleasure, or consequences in performing certain tasks which will influence how one engages in occupation during therapy (Tombly, 1995). Meaningfulness is

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Analysis Of My Mother Pieced Quilts - 909 Words

In everyday life, culture defines the way we view our world. Culture is expressed through things like religion, art, family values, and even food. It can show the background of peoples. It can be greatly influenced by the places they live. Culture has a large effect on the way one views others and the world as shown in stories â€Å"My Mother Pieced Quilts† and â€Å"Everyday Use â€Å"My Mother Pieced Quilts† by Teresa Paloma Acosta is a poem about a girl that describes her mothers quilts past and seems to be showing that peoples cultural background have a mass effect on the way one views others and the world.The girl describes how the quilts â€Å"were just meant as covers in winters as weapons against pounding January winds† (lines 1-4).When she woke†¦show more content†¦Maggie â€Å"is homely and ashamed of the burn scars down her arms and legs, eyeing her sister with a mixture of envy and awe†(line 3-4).The mother then starts to go into a fantasy dream about â€Å"TV shows where the child who has made it is confronted, as a surprise, by her own mother and father, tottering in weakly from backstage. (A pleasant surprise, of course: What would they do if parent and child came on the show only to curse out and insult each other?) On TV mother and child embrace and smile into each others faces†(lines 3-7).Mom describes he rself as â€Å"large, big, boned woman with rough, man.working hands†(line 5).Finally, Dee rolls into the driveway with a dude. Dee, who is wearing â€Å"a dress down to the ground, in this hot weather a dress so loud it hurts my eyes† and the dude (an Arab guy whos name is Hakim-a-barber) greet the narrator and Maggie with fancy Arabic â€Å"Asalamalakim†(line 23) and African â€Å"!† (line 21) salutations. Dee announces that shes changed her name to â€Å"Wangero†Show MoreRelatedAnalysis Of My Mother Pieced Quilts821 Words   |  4 Pagesoldest daughter changes her name and doesnt appreciate her culture, Dee and Maggie both want the family quilt. Dee wants the quilt, but the mom doesnt want to give the quilt to her, she wants to give the quilt to Maggie. Maggie wants to hold on to her heritage and Dee doesnt understand her heritage, her mom knows that Dee wont hold on to the family heritage.In the poem â€Å"My Mother Pieced Q uilts† memories revolve around the poem.The poem is mainly about the mothers talent of weaving and how sheRead MoreMy Mother Pieced Quilts Analysis840 Words   |  4 PagesAmerica,† Bharati Mukherjee describes her differing views of living in America with her sister, despite both being raised in India. In the poem, â€Å"My Mother Pieced Quilts,† by Teresa Palomo Acosta, Teresa how this quilt that her mother made for her involves all these pieces of her past that are stitched together. In the short story, â€Å"Everyday Use,† a mother describes the effects of living in a low income community and a certain style of parenting that shaped the way her two daughters view their pastRead MoreClays Quilt1863 Words   |  8 PagesBrett Johnson Clay’s Quilt Chapter 23-25 Summary amp; Analysis Chapter 23: Summary: The start of chapter 23 began with Alma talking to her sister, Evangeline, about how Clay has been acting since he shot and murdered Denzel. Alma describes Clay’s personality being completely dull ever since the incident, â€Å"all he does is come straight home from work and sits down in that chair and stays there the rest of the evening.† p. 253. Evangeline tries convincing Alma to talk Clay into leaving the area

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Drawing on examples from Chapters Essay Example For Students

Drawing on examples from Chapters Essay Research has examined the influence of different factors on human behavior and performance, external factors depend on a persons upbringing, culture and the influence they receive from heir peers. The environment in which we live has a considerable impact on our behavior and performance, three Of Which Will be explored in more detail. The first being Albert Bandannas study with Boob dolls and the effect violence has on a childs behavior. Whilst also looking at how friendships are built and the different peer pressures we face as children and adolescents and how the friendships we build can influence behavior and performance whilst also defining who we are. The third type will be looking at the effects of a stroke on the brain and the way in which it recovers and reprograms itself. Social learning is described as learning new behaviors by observing others. These behaviors being observed can be of good or bad behavior. There are certain things that can influence human behaviors, for example media violence, films, TV and computer games, Today the internet is powerful and has the power to influence behavior, online games portray extreme violence that both children and adults can participate in. With technology becoming more advanced and the digital world available more easily to young people it is becoming a concern that this is having a serious effect on attitudes towards violence, in the sense of what s the correct way to behave and what is not (Dates, 2010, p. 03). Albert Bandeau conducted an experiment to find out if there was a relationship between children witnessing violence and them carrying out violent acts. He observed the children within four different groups to allow him to see the affect Of certain variables on their behavior. He used a model to act aggressively towards a blow up doll in a variety of scenes including both live and filmed models. He then observed the childrens behavior to wards the doll after they had witnessed the model behaving violently. His results showed that exposure to these displays of aggression by both types of models led to aggressive behavior and highlighted that there is a key link between the media and childrens behaving Human behavior can be influenced by seeing violent acts, however the result from the study observed that it depends on the gender of the child and vivo has performed the violent act, for example male, female, cartoon or human (Dates, 2010, p. 110 111). Bandeau et al study is one of the first experiments to measure the effects of media on behavior. There is a strong correlation between the amount Of aggression a child shows and what violence they have just witnessed. However there are reasons Why observing a correlation can not always show the correct results. A correlation doesnt inform us of what the direction of effect may be. Instead of a child acting violently because of what they have seen, it could be that they were already an aggressive child and were seeking to watch violent content or play violent online games. A correlation also doesnt tell us if there is a third factor in the behavior, A child could be at home with a violent parent and violent videos may be easily accessible to them. Here the environment at home could account for both the aggressive child and the exposure to the media content (Dates, 2010, p. 120 121). Friendships are an important influence on behavior, this can be in both a positive and negative way, Those first friendships formed in school can be very important and influential in the way children experience their start to school life. .u1710fa99555c500a69ff4c22859026c0 , .u1710fa99555c500a69ff4c22859026c0 .postImageUrl , .u1710fa99555c500a69ff4c22859026c0 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u1710fa99555c500a69ff4c22859026c0 , .u1710fa99555c500a69ff4c22859026c0:hover , .u1710fa99555c500a69ff4c22859026c0:visited , .u1710fa99555c500a69ff4c22859026c0:active { border:0!important; } .u1710fa99555c500a69ff4c22859026c0 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u1710fa99555c500a69ff4c22859026c0 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u1710fa99555c500a69ff4c22859026c0:active , .u1710fa99555c500a69ff4c22859026c0:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u1710fa99555c500a69ff4c22859026c0 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u1710fa99555c500a69ff4c22859026c0 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u1710fa99555c500a69ff4c22859026c0 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u1710fa99555c500a69ff4c22859026c0 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u1710fa99555c500a69ff4c22859026c0:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u1710fa99555c500a69ff4c22859026c0 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u1710fa99555c500a69ff4c22859026c0 .u1710fa99555c500a69ff4c22859026c0-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u1710fa99555c500a69ff4c22859026c0:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: How to Create the Flowchart EssayThroughout life friends can influence children and adults in the way they behave as peer pressure can lead to good and bad experiences. For example if a person is friends with somebody vivo smokes or takes drugs, they may feel that hey have to mimic this action as well to stay in the specific group. Research by Kim McLeod has shown this to be the case and that the friends humans make influence development and behavior. McLeod et al decided to study the influence of friends on smoking behavior. TO do this they studied sets Of twins, one Of Who smoked and one Who didnt. They looked to see if it was their friendship groups that caused them to smoke or in the others case not to smoke. McLeod et al found that friends do influence the decision to smoke. The reasons given for smoking was for social mobility, for example to make friends with certain groups or to gain a rebellious image. They also found that as with the smoker twin, the non smoker was aware that the role of smoking can create a certain social image and personal identity (Brown, 2010, p. 56 257), Gonzalez et al studied friendships in both collectivist cultures and individualistic cultures. The friendships built in collectivist cultures tend to be based on values i. E. Concern for each other and peaceful relationships and individualistic cultures where they are focused on individual goals and achievements. Gonzalez et al tidied the relationship between teenagers in Canada and Cuba to compare the different types of f riendships. He asked nearly six hundred teenagers between the two countries to write an essay about the qualities they look for in a best friend of the same gender. What he found was that both cultures looked for loyalty and acceptance but the Cuban essays focused more on who the person was and having a close bond with them. Whereas the Canadian essays were more focused on the sharing of interests or social interaction Although the results showed what Bandeau et al thought, studies since have not brought he same results and as a result suggest that concepts such as collectivism and individualism are sometimes too general when trying to understand the sometimes subtle influence culture can have on human behavior and social skills (Brown, 2010, p. 258, 259, 260 261). Whilst a lot of the way we behave and perform is to do with both peer pressure and influence, some of it is out of our control and not down to the environment in which we live. People who suffer from a stroke perform in different ways because of what is known as aphasia, a breakdown in speech. This involves broken connections between language, meaning and production, affecting speech, writing, reading and processing numbers. Which connections that have been damaged is different for everyone. Stroke patients are vital when providing valuable understanding between the brain and psychological tensions (Toasts, 2010, p. 15), The brain has the ability to recover from a stroke due to the plasticity of it, it can create new pathways following a stroke, almost like it is being reprogrammed. With the help fatherly courses the brain has the ability to adapt. A therapy ladled MIT, melodic intonation therapy can help build a patients confidence and realism their strengths and use these to adapt to their damage and improve the recovery process. Once a person has had a stroke they never fully recover from it as it damages brain tissue that can not be regenerated. The brain has to become more alert using different regions that have always been there and do have the connections, they just need to become more efficient (Pill 3: Researching language impairment (2010) l. To conclude, there are various environmental factors that effect human behavior and performance. The television children watch can have an impact on whether they behave well or not, but sometimes the media is just an extra influence to an aggressive or violent life that already exists for that child. Correlations are not always as black and white as they may seem and there may be more to the reasons behind the aggressive behavior. .u5ccbb544da72b4959adbfbff8a908a60 , .u5ccbb544da72b4959adbfbff8a908a60 .postImageUrl , .u5ccbb544da72b4959adbfbff8a908a60 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u5ccbb544da72b4959adbfbff8a908a60 , .u5ccbb544da72b4959adbfbff8a908a60:hover , .u5ccbb544da72b4959adbfbff8a908a60:visited , .u5ccbb544da72b4959adbfbff8a908a60:active { border:0!important; } .u5ccbb544da72b4959adbfbff8a908a60 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u5ccbb544da72b4959adbfbff8a908a60 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u5ccbb544da72b4959adbfbff8a908a60:active , .u5ccbb544da72b4959adbfbff8a908a60:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u5ccbb544da72b4959adbfbff8a908a60 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u5ccbb544da72b4959adbfbff8a908a60 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u5ccbb544da72b4959adbfbff8a908a60 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u5ccbb544da72b4959adbfbff8a908a60 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u5ccbb544da72b4959adbfbff8a908a60:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u5ccbb544da72b4959adbfbff8a908a60 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u5ccbb544da72b4959adbfbff8a908a60 .u5ccbb544da72b4959adbfbff8a908a60-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u5ccbb544da72b4959adbfbff8a908a60:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Drawing on the experience of your own countries EssayWhen looking at the influence friends have on our behavior it is important to look at all cultures. All across the world people make trends every day, they try to impress these friends and fit in with groups they want to be in, These environmental facts have a great influence on whether children and even adults do well in elite, at school, work and personal lives, In some cases, such as patients who have suffered from strokes, the environment in which we live isnt always the cause of human behavior or performance.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Information Processing Theory

Introduction In the late 50’s and early 60’s, the information processing theory was crafted and its proponents continued to develop it throughout the years.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Information Processing Theory specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the early 1990s, many scholars of developmental psychology fell into the disenchantment of the antimentalistic and biased of behavioral psychology and shortcoming of Piaget’s theory, and thus they shifted to cognitive psychology and computer science to seek new thoughts and insights about children’s thinking. Computer systems that rely on mathematically programmed operations to offer solutions enabled these researchers to formulate a framework for information processing perspective that could explain cognitive development (Shaffer and Kipp 58). Early theorists attempted to make connections between how people think and how computers op erate. According to the information processing theory, the human mind is like a computer storage on which information is stored, operated on, and converted to answer and solutions to problems. Using the computer analogy, the proponents of this theory assert that the human mind is a hardware comprising of the brain and nerves as peripherals, and that the mental processes are software. The software exhibits itself in the form of attention, memory, perception, problem-solving, and critical thinking strategies (Shaffer and Kipp 58). The information processing theory justifies psychological advancement with regard to maturation alterations in fundamental essentials of the brain of a student. The theory is founded on the concept that individuals act on the knowledge they acquire, instead of only reacting to stimuli. This standpoint likens the brain of a person to a computer that is liable of assessing knowledge. This paper discusses cognitive development with respect to the information pr ocessing theory.Advertising Looking for report on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nature or Nurture: Biological and socio-cultural influences on cognitive development The information processing theory suggests a connection between biological and cognitive development. Unlike Piaget’s theory, which was vague about this link, the information processing theory contends that brain maturation and the nervous systems allow children and adolescents to process information quickly (Shaffer and Kipp 58). Therefore, developing children are capable of sustaining attention, recognizing and storing relevant information, and executing mental programs that enable them to process what has been stored to provide solutions to problems. Information theorists are alive to the fact that strategies that children develop for processing information are significantly influenced by the experiences presented to them; that is, they are i nfluenced by the nature of problems presented to them coupled with instructions and cultures-specific information that they get (Shaffer and Kipp 58). To what extent is the development of children’s thinking regulated (a) internally according to biologically specified systems, and/or (b) externally according to culturally established systems such as language? The theory of information processing, like Piaget’s theory, construes that children’s thinking is controlled by internal (biological) systems, as well as culturally specific information. However, the proponents of this theory suggest that external elements are more influential as compared to internal systems (Seigler, DeLoache, and Eisenberg 265). They contend that biological systems are essential information processing systems that depend on external forces, which are instructions and information obtained or gathered from culturally oriented learning environments (Taylor 89). For these reasons, these theor ists believe that natural or biological components, which consist of the brain and the nervous systems, should be secure and functional to gather, store, and operate on information and produce the desired outcomes.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Information Processing Theory specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As learners progress from childhood, they portray the development of thinking that is controlled internally in accordance with biologically specified systems. Several of the augmented pace and effectiveness is certainly due to the genetically (biologically) propelled neurons shaping intelligence. Nevertheless, experience and learning also play a significant role. Through practicing some psychological and physical activities regularly, learners in any grade build up automatization for these activities (McDevitt and Ormrod146-148). This insight suggests that learners eventually are in a position to carry out these activities quickly and even without conscious attempt. Learning disabilities affect the academic grades to the extent that some learners have to go through a special education system. The majority of the learning disabilities seem to bear a biological explanation. Several learners having learning disabilities could effortlessly acquire expertise in mathematics and encounter incomparable problems with reading. On the other hand, learners could portray the development of thinking controlled externally in accordance with culturally instituted systems like language. For instance, according to the western civilization, the attainment of knowledge is mostly for individual advantage; that is, individuals go through school in a bid to comprehend the universe and gain new expertise and capabilities. Nevertheless, for the majority of the Chinese, education bears moral as well as social inclinations. Learning is believed to allow a person to gain reputation and participate to the betterm ent of the community in a considerable manner (McDevitt and Ormrod 149-150). According to a custom in East Asia, real education does not denote a fast and simple progression. Instead, learning materializes with great attentiveness, focus, and determination. Cultural variations have as well been evident in the readiness of learners to assess critically the information and convictions that the grown-ups convey to them. Different cultures set high regard on esteeming the elders or some spiritual teachings. In this regard, they could promote the epistemic conviction that reality in particular fields is an issue of belief and excellently obtained from esteemed figures of supremacy. Additionally, cultural prominence on sustaining group accord could discourage kids from talking about and analyzing different viewpoints on a contentious subject.Advertising Looking for report on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In agreement with a conviction that education necessitates attentiveness as well as determination, the majority of parents and educators in East Asia support regular application of rehearsal and committal to memory as studying techniques. Rehearsal and committal to memory are as well widely used in cultures that treasure dedicating oral accounts or passages of spiritual texts to remembrance (Taylor 82). On the contrary, different schools in the typical western cultures require learners to concentrate on obtaining sense from the stuff presented in the classroom instead of trying to recall it through memorization. Irrespective of this aspect, schools in the western societies characteristically maintain that children must learn some things (like spelling) by memorization. Stages or continuous development: Continuity and discontinuity of cognitive development The theory of information process asserts that cognitive development is a continuous process and it is not stage-like. Ideally, t he theory postulates that the strategies adopted to collect, store, and operate on information are evolutionary. They change over the course of childhood and adolescence (Taylor 89). As a result, information-processing theorizers hold that cognitive ontogeny is gradual quantitative changes rather than large qualitative changes. The theory construes cognitive development as constructive waves that overlap, as opposed to a sequence of distinct stages of development. Children’s thinking is a process that incorporates progressive changes in learning strategies. For example, children learning mathematics use strategies such as finger counting, Min counting strategy, and oral counting. They move from these stages easier; that is, from less efficient approaches to complex, but efficient approaches (Taylor 89). The theory suggests that children’s thinking is marked by a slow quantitative change in cognitive development, which means that children’s cognitive development grows from one stage to the other in a uniform manner. As a result, information-processing theorists assert that this process is continuous rather than dramatic shifts. The process does not happen or occur in a bang, but children’s comprehension of the environment follows a sequence of events including growth of biological components and experiences presented. To what extent is the development of children’s thinking marked by (a) abrupt changes between distinct stages of development, and/or (b) gradual and continuous growth without stage shifts? With respect to information processing view, many developmental changes take place in psychological activities. Notion increasingly utilizes symbols. According to cognitive development in Piaget’s theory, the substance of the ideas of infants is primarily sensorimotor, which means that it is founded on opinions and conducts. Close to the end of the sensorimotor phase (around one and a half years), children start thinking in the form of symbols and psychological units (like words) that do not firmly reveal the perceptual characteristics of the items or occasions they stand for (for instance, a ball could be referred by unlike names in various languages). The symbolic notions permit children to deduce qualities that they have not directly studied (Seigler, DeLoache, and Eisenberg 263). In case a child aged 3 years, and has a good knowledge of domestic pets, takes notice of his dad mentioning the name â€Å"cat†, he would simply envisage a small mammal that possesses sharp ears, walks on fours, and meows. Piaget was perhaps right in considering that sensorimonitor depictions of items and occasions lead symbolic depictions. Nevertheless, the move is steady than perceived. Prior to kids attaining school attending age, they start utilizing representations like expressions, numbers, images, and tiny simulations to symbolize and consider actual-existence items and occasions. Nevertheless, while chil dren start obtaining elementary education, they could originally have just restricted success in tackling the extensive diversity of representations they stumble upon in life. Educators frequently employ concrete items to symbolize numerals or mathematical functions. Nonetheless, not every child makes out the link between these items in addition to their associated impressions. Maps are as well largely representational in character and kids in the early levels frequently construe them factually, possibly having a view that a ground that appears red on a map is in reality red in color (Seigler, DeLoache, and Eisenberg 264). With the kids turning out to be of age, their application of representations to deliberate, recall, and resolve difficulties develops in rate and complexity. Finally, their representational capacities permit them to rise above daily actualities, reflect concerning what may take place in the future, and establish theoretical comprehensions concerning their physical and cognitive globes. Logical thinking capacities advance with age. The original sign of irrational thinking show in infancy and are associated with views of physical episodes. Way before the first birthday, kids can identify a cause and effect affiliation in a series of occasions. If a 6-months old views an item as it strikes a different item and the second one instantly gains motion after being struck, the kid comprehends that the initial item has fundamentally â€Å"started† the second one. Even before attaining school going age, kids can illustrate logical conclusions from language-anchored knowledge. For example, they illustrate logical inferences concerning occasions portrayed in the stories of kids (Seigler, DeLoache, and Eisenberg 266). Nevertheless, kids that have not attained school going age as well as those in the first grade at times fail to illustrate the right conclusions, and they encounter hardships differentiating between what has to be right against what m ay be right given the proof ahead of them. The capacity to reason irrationally is boosted in infancy and in teenage years. However, even at this age, reasoning capacities differ extensively from one child to a different one and it is normally controlled by individual motivations and prejudices. At times, gesticulations predict the materialization of deliberations that are more complicated and interpretations, possibly concerning ancient Piagetian functions or mathematical difficulties. They frequently demonstrate such interpretation in their gesticulations prior to their exhibiting it in their speech. A 5-years child was trying to justify his conviction that the volume of juice changed after being transferred from a tall thin glass to a broad and short glass (Seigler, DeLoache, and Eisenberg 267). With his hand shaped as a â€Å"C† the child explained that the difference in volume occurred for the level of juice in one glass was higher than in the other. Gesticulations, such as the C-shaped hand, seem to illustrate a manner in which kids carry out their experimentation (cognitively). Gesticulations could as well ease the stress on functioning memory as kids initially start to fight with more intricate manner of judgment. Children are capable of recalling several occurrences, but not the entire information they come across everyday. As they advance in the schooling levels, it turns out vital for kids to distinguish major points and maintain critical notions in manners that enhance later remembrance. Kids less than 2 years seldom exhibit conscious endeavors to recall things. If requested to recall the position that a doll was hidden, children could gaze or point towards the position that they witnessed it being placed until they succeed in getting it. Nonetheless, very young kids seldom make efforts in an attempt to learn and recall things (Seigler, DeLoache, and Eisenberg 268). In reality, children aged four to five years can recall a number of items mor e effectively by playing with the items as compared to deliberately attempting to recall them. During their course through primary and secondary school levels, children and adolescents build up an augmenting quantity of learning policies and methods that they deliberately employ to learn things, which assist them to recall information more efficiently (without stage shifts). Three aspects that emerge in the course of schooling years encompass preparation, formation, and explanation. One mind or many: Specificity and/or generality of cognitive abilities According to this theory, cognitive abilities of children are task-specific rather than general. Like computers, children’s mind is in a position to process information based on specific instructions, which provide outputs (memory, attention, problem-solving skills) that are specific. Unlike Piaget’s theory, information-processing theory contends that where vague instructions are provided, no accurate solutions can be ar rived at (Shaffer and Kipp 59). Developmental psychologists that approve the information processing theory justify psychological advancement with respect to maturation adjustments in fundamental constituents of the brain of a learner. The theory is anchored in the notion that individuals process the knowledge that they acquire, instead of only reacting to stimuli. This viewpoint likens the brain of an individual to a computer that is accountable for assessing knowledge. In accordance to the normal knowledge-processing pattern for psychological advancement, the machinery of the brain encompasses concentration mechanisms for conveying information and functioning of memory for dynamically manipulating knowledge. This theory tackles the way kids grow and the way their brains mature, thus bringing about developments in their capacity to work and react to the knowledge they obtain via their intelligences. This assertion stresses on a constant model of advancement unlike the Piaget’ s theory (Shaffer and Kipp 60). When an individual is carrying out an activity, the functioning memory is ratified. Like the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer, data is coded, accorded significance, and integrated with information already kept to ratify the task. Knowledge is stored in the brain of a human being from where it could be obtained if required, which is comparable to storing data in the hard disk of a computer where one could later retrieve the data for a particular need. To what extent is children’s thinking (a) specially-organized for each domain such as math or language, and/or (b) organized with a single all-purpose cognitive system that works in all domains? Children’s thinking is governed by several domains that are in a position to gather, store, operate on, and process information. However, the theory acknowledges that no single domain works in isolation, but as an organized system of dependent variables. Instructions should be such that th ey address specific cognitive skills (McDevitt and Ormrod 145). For example, instructions given for mathematical additions cannot be similar to those provided for language skills. Individualized domains are capable of processing incoming information to yield solutions to problems presented to children (Taylor 89). What should teachers do? Educational Implications of the information processing theory on education The theory has a huge bearing on how educationists should proceed to formulate school or learning and teaching curricula to match the needs of different children. Since the theory suggests that information processing is a domain-specific process, educators should design curriculum instructions that are specific, rather than general (Seigler, DeLoache, and Eisenberg 265). In addition, instructions should be given continuously to enable learners to make sense of the problems that are presented in their daily lives. The curriculum should also begin with simple, yet inefficient methods and proceed to complex and efficient strategies that build upon each other. This observation means that learning strategies should not be discrete, but rather continuous to help learners to relate complex problems with simple problems (Shaffer and Kipp 58). The information process theory has had a significant impact on how educators and psychologists view the thinking process in children. This theory supports rigorous research methods, which have helped teachers to understand how children approach various challenges and reasons why they may make errors as they search for solutions (Taylor 26). Since teachers are aware of how and why children are unable to solve mathematical problems, they are capable of developing alternative strategies that can improve the performance of children. Significance is among the most vital constituents of the information processing theory. Studies have revealed that when substance is made significant, it is learnt more swiftly and preserved for a long time instead of using classroom notes. Significance comes about when learners are capable of taking hold of generalizations, directives, associations connecting facts, and values for which they observe some application, while they can link the latest information with their past information and encounters (Shaffer and Kipp 61), which is done with the consideration of the extent of understanding of the student. Some of the activities that teachers can do to boost significance include demonstrating to the learners the way new information is associated with different stuff they have previously learnt. Secondly, teachers can offer learners multiple instances for every fresh concept that illustrates both comprehensive and limited qualities. Thirdly, teachers can provide sketches, images, analogies, instances, and illustrations to help in ensuring the associations involving fresh and old knowledge remains vivid. Fourthly, teachers can help learners in creating a relationship between new stuff and their level of capability. Fifthly, teacher can give learners assessments that necessitate them to incorporate fresh information with old knowledge (Shaffer and Kipp 63). Additionally, for learners in higher levels (such as secondary school level), teachers can ask them to create examples that necessitate the creation of fresh relations. Moreover, significance could be enhanced by demonstrating suitable uses of stuff, particularly uses that are applicable to the lives of the learners. In this regard, teachers could evaluate the significance by presenting questions that demand learners to generalize stuff to fresh circumstances. Lastly, teachers can sensitize students to rephrase information in different words, but with the same meaning. The common aspect of these implications is that fresh material will be studied and maintained in an excellent way when students are necessitated to actively build up information and come up with significant relations as compared to when they only attempt to remember it word for word (Shaffer and Kipp 56). The studying of fresh material is enhanced when students already have a network of connected notions with which they can connect the fresh stuff. How should curriculum, instruction, and assessment in today’s classrooms proceed? What should teachers do more and what should they do less? Curriculum, instruction, and assessment in the contemporary classrooms could employ Piaget’s theory in determining things to purchase in a bid to enhance the learning of the children. Teachers could employ Piaget’s theory more in their operations; for example, in explaining if the curriculum subjects are appropriate for the level of learners or not (Seigler, DeLoache, and Eisenberg 260). For instance, recent researches have indicated that kids in a similar level and in a given age bracket act in different ways on assignments gauging basic inclusion and removal glibness. Kids in the pre-functional and actual fun ctional phases of cognitive improvement carry out joint arithmetic functions (subtraction and addition) with the same level of accuracy. Nevertheless, kids in the actual functional phases of cognitive improvement have been capable of carrying out both subtraction and addition difficulties with entire higher glibness. The capacity to carry out mathematical functions confidently shows a degree of expertise mastery and inclination to study complex mathematical operations. Educators who function with kids in both the pre-functional and the actual functional levels of cognitive improvement ought to take up appropriate intellectual anticipations with respect to the cognitive improvement capacities of their students. The necessity for teachers to personalize and take up suitable academic anticipations seems to be most applicable for kids at grade 1. Studies have revealed that learners study best if they are actively engaged in the studying progression. Comical rephrasing of an old saying: â€Å"You can lead a horse to the water, but the only water that gets into his stomach is what he drinks†, epitomizes the worth that the information processing theory bestows on a student, as an active instead of passive partaker in the education progression. In a bid to boost active contribution by learners, educators must talk less and allocate more time for discourse, group work, and personal activities as well as assessments in the classroom. The increased activity alone is not sufficient to boost learning. Cognitive endeavor has to be applied for the classroom learning to be valuable and thus learners can be kept active at the course of the teaching session (Seigler, DeLoache, and Eisenberg 262). Teachers could as well pose questions that necessitate learners to go past remembrance classroom notes in a bid to create active discourse and this aspect translates to enhanced cognitive endeavor. A different manner of boosting the application of cognitive effort is the rating of assignments. It is evident that most of the learners cannot devote psychological effort in an undertaking unless they are aware that it will be considered in the grading. Information that is not concentrated on fails to satisfy the information processing system. Devoid of the concentration of learners to the present activity, there cannot be effective learning. Therefore, concentration is a vital sign of effective learning. In a bid to draw the concentration of learners on the study undertakings, both efficient inspirational and classroom administration expertise are vital, which implies that teachers must produce some methods to draw and sustain the concentration of learners (Seigler, DeLoache, and Eisenberg 263-264). Some of the proposed ways of boosting the concentration of learners include the following. Application of uniqueness while presenting substance: An innovative method turns out to be routine when applied persistently. As much as achievable, eradicate all unwarrante d distractions emanating from such things as noise and comfortless school desks. Assist the learners in concentrating mostly on vital knowledge via voice variations, evaluating, pauses, and writing on the blackboard with the involvement of learners. Ensure to capture the concentration of learners before presenting the materials. Move about the classroom, apply gesticulations, and shun from the utilization of monotone. Present questions to learners in a random way. This move boosts the possibility that every one of the learners will concentrate. Prompt learners to some questions they will be asked to repeat later by requesting them to sum up the significant points in a lesson. Conclusion Early theorists endeavored to make links between the way people think and the way computers work. The information processing theory validates psychological progression with regard to maturation alterations in basic essentials of understanding of a student. While children start acquiring elementary l earning, they could initially have just limited success in handling the extensive assortment of representations they bump into. Educators normally employ concrete items to represent numerals or mathematical tasks. Although theorists of information processing differ with other theories such as Piagetian thinking, they contend that intellectual development of the human mind is influenced by nurture (experiences that children interact with in the environment) and nature (biological factors such as maturation). This theory has been criticized with critics contending that the framework undermines the diversity and richness of human cognition. Notwithstanding its criticisms, the information-processing theory can be used to shape the perception of educators and aid in developing relevant curriculum instructions. Works Cited McDevitt, Teresa, and Jeanne Ormrod. Child Development and Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2012. Print. Seigler, Robert, Judy DeLoache, and Nancy Eise nberg. How Children Develop, New York: Worth Publishers, 2010. Print. Shaffer, David, and Katherine Kipp. Developmental Psychology: Childhood and Adolescence, Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print. Taylor, Laura. Introducing Cognitive Development, Hove, U.K: Psychology Press, 2005. Print. This report on Information Processing Theory was written and submitted by user Ian U. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here. Information Processing Theory