Monday, September 30, 2019
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Cost allocation for indirect costs Cost Pool Ã¢â¬â Set of costs that are added together before being allocated to cost objects on some common basis Cost Driver/ Allocation base Cost Object Cost Driver Rate = Total Costs in Pool/ Total Quantity of Driver Where total quantity of driver = practical capacity of driver Cost of excess capacity = Cost Driver Rate * Excess capacity Predetermined overhead rate Ã¢â¬â cost per unit of the allocation base used to charge overhead to products. Predetermined overhead rate=Estimated overhead/Estimated allocation base One-stage allocation system Single cost pool Ã¢â¬â Entire manufacturing overhead * Single allocation base / cost driver-Direct materials cost/ Direct labor hours/ Direct labor cost/ Machine hours/ etc. * Predetermined Overhead Rate or Burden rate = Total manufacturing overhead / X * Where X = Total Direct materials cost or Total Direct labor hours or Total Direct labor cost or Total machine hours used * Total product costs of A = Direct materials cost + Direct labor cost + allocated overhead cost where allocated overhead = Burden rate * # of machine hours used by ADisadvantage: Assumes that all products consume direct labor (or other driver) and overhead in the same proportion. Two-stage allocation system and Product Costing Overhead costs are divided into different cost pools. Each cost pool has a cost driver (allocation base). * Split manufacturing overhead into more than one cost pool (e. g. create 2 cost pools whose costs add up to total manufacturing overhead cost) * Calculate burden rate Cost pools| Cost Drivers|Overhead related to direct materials| Direct materials Cost| Overhead related to direct labor hours| Direct labor hours| Overhead related to direct labor cost| Direct labor cost| Overhead related to machine-hours| Machine hours| Advantage: * Provides most accurate cost information * Cost system captures differences in the way overhead is consumed in different parts of the production process Disadvantage: * Cost of the system redesign may be high. The selection of an optimal cost system is based on trade-offs between increased accuracy and the cost of system redesign.Predetermined Overhead Rate or Burden rate = Overhead cost related to direct materials/ Total Direct materials cost OR Overhead cost related to direct labor hours/ Total Direct labor hours OR Overhead cost related to direct labor cost/ Total Direct labor cost OR Overhead cost related to machine hours/ Total machine hours used Total product costs of A = Direct materials cost + Direct labor cost + allocated overhead cost where allocated overhead = Burden rate per machine hour * # of machine hours used by A + Burden rate per direct labor $ * direct labor cost of ADepartmental overhead rate Ã¢â¬â Rates based on a department's direct and indirect overhead costs and some measure of the department's activity, such as the department's machine hours. Departmental rates are more accurate than plant-wide rates when a company manufactures diverse products requiring a variety of processes. Allocate overhead on a plantwide basis using machine hours Ã¢â¬â Burden rate per machine hour = total overhead costs of all departments/ total machine hours used by all departmentsAllocate overhead using department rate with machine hours as the allocation base Ã¢â¬â Burden rate per machine hour = Overhead costs of a department/ Machine hours used by that department Activity Based Costing 1. Identify activities, and identify overhead costs for each activity 2. Identify the cost drivers for each activity 3. Compute cost driver rates (cost per driver unit)= activity overhead cost/ total driver volume 4. Allocate costs to cost objects Overhead costs allocated to A = cost driver 1 rate * cost driver 1 volume for A + cost driver 2 rate * cost driver 2 volume for AABC Costs and Benefits Costs are very high if: Ã¢â¬ ¢ You have a large number of activities, none of which dominate Ã¢â¬ ¢ You do not know/unders tand your activities Ã¢â¬ ¢ Your activities are changing quickly and dramatically Ã¢â¬ ¢ You do not have any sort of ERP system in place Benefit: * Detailed Cost break-down at activity level can manage costs at activity level, or charge customers for their activity use * More accurate information * Flexibility in Choice of Cost objects * Flexibility in Types of Companies/Organizations this works for such as Product companies, Services, Non-profitsSymptoms of faulty accounting system Ã¢â¬ ¢ The outcome of bids is difficult to explain Ã¢â¬ ¢ Customers do not complain about price increases Ã¢â¬ ¢ CompetitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ prices appear unrealistically low Ã¢â¬ ¢ Profit margins are hard to explain Ã¢â¬ ¢ Products those are difficult to produce show high profits Ã¢â¬ ¢ Operational mgrs want to drop products that appear profitable Ã¢â¬ ¢ Some departments are using their own accounting system Ã¢â¬ ¢ The accounting department spends a lot of time on special projects Ã¢â¬ ¢ Product cost s change because of changes in financial reporting RegulationsCommon Cost Allocation Systems Plantwide/Company-wide Cost System (Ã¢â¬Å"Peanut-ButterÃ¢â¬ ) Ã¢â¬â Typically 1 cost pool Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"burden rateÃ¢â¬ based on 1 cost driver (1 stageÃ¢â¬ ¦) Department Allocation Method Ã¢â¬â Typically 1 cost pool per department Ã¢â¬â cost driver for each department (testing rooms in Seligram) 2-stage Cost System with Logical Cost Pools Ã¢â¬â Typically at least 1 cost pool per department, but might split more carefully (For example, what if SeligramÃ¢â¬â¢s electronic and mechanical testing had all been in 1 room? ) Direct cost can be directly traced to specific cost objects, in an economically feasible way. Example: direct materials, direct labor, etc. * One-stage costing system (Ã¢â¬Å"Peanut butterÃ¢â¬ ): pool all indirect costs together, use a single cost driver. inaccurate. * The Seligram case: in the original costing system, Ã¢â¬Å"burden was grouped into a si ngle cost poolÃ¢â¬ , they use a single cost driver Ã¢â¬Å"testing and engineering labor dollarsÃ¢â¬ * Two-stage costing system: first stage, costs are traced/allocated to cost pools (at least two).Second stage, costs are allocated from cost pools to cost objects using cost drivers. * The more cost pools, the more accurate your cost numbers, but the more costly to track. * The Seligram case: the costing system proposed by the accounting managers is a two-stage system. * Stage 1: burden is traced to two pools: (1) burden related to admin and technical functions; (2) all other burden costs * Stage 2: pool 1 will be charged on a rate per direct labor dollar. Pool 2 would be charged based on machine hours. Sometimes firms are already using two-stage costing, but they need to add new cost pools. * Add a new category * Divide current pool into subcategories * The formula for cost driver rates: total costs in pool / total quantity of driver * Activity-Based Costing system: 1 cost pool for each major activity performed in the company. * Idea is that resource usage is homogeneous within each activity, so the allocation is more accurate. * Disadvantage of ABC system: costly. * When NOT to use ABC system: when activities change quickly, when there is no ERP system in place
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Analyzing Suspense And Tension In The Monkey S Paw English Literature Essay As Ã¢â¬ËThe MonkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s PawÃ¢â¬â¢ was published in September, 1902, by the author, WW Jacobs. Jacobs creates a sense of horror, suspense and tension very effectively in Ã¢â¬ËThe MonkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s PawÃ¢â¬â¢ by using variety of literary techniques. It firmly abides by the Gothic Horror genre which can be defined as a theme which combines elements of both Horror and Romance. A ghost story is a story determined to scare the reader it usually builds up gradually with tension and suspense, in Ã¢â¬ËThe MonkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s PawÃ¢â¬â¢ Jacobs has used a lot of intense, exaggerated words to build tension and suspense in many elements of the story. Jacobs creates the story scary in ways that are very different to modern Horror films and books. It shows the reader that the story was written in the early twentieth century as it contains many details that would have been common in Victorian literature. There are numerous features which are obvious from Ã¢â¬ËThe Monkeys PawÃ¢â¬â¢ which strikes to show the reader that the story was written over a century ago, as a result of this the old fashioned language which Jacobs uses. The old fashioned language used throughout the whole story contains words such as Ã¢â¬ËvisageÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËrubicundÃ¢â¬â¢, these are not words that are commonly being used today. The story contains many details that would have been common in Victorian literature this tells that the story was written in the early twentieth century. Moreover the fact that Ã £200 was considered to be a lot of money this clearly reflects that the story was from a long time ago as Ã £200 is not seen as a large amount of money in the modern world. In Ã¢â¬ËThe MonkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s PawÃ¢â¬â¢ W.W.Jacobs uses variety of different ways to portray different feelings and emotions, by describing the characters, the setting and the actions of the story, which add to the accumulation of suspense. Jacobs begins the story by setting the scene and creates an atmosphere of suspense by describing the area in which the WhiteÃ¢â¬â¢s live. In the story Ã¢â¬Å"The MonkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s PawÃ¢â¬ W.W. Jacobs has used words like Ã¢â¬ËDarknessÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËTremblingÃ¢â¬â¢ numerous times, all these descriptive words used to manifest fear and terror, which builds expectation. Ã¢â¬Å"NightÃ¢â¬ ¦Cold wetÃ¢â¬ ¦Paths a bog and roads a torrentÃ¢â¬ ¦Only two houses in the areaÃ¢â¬ . The setting of the story Ã¢â¬Å"The MonkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s PawÃ¢â¬ is a typical for a horror story, with the setting and the atmosphere being so stereotypical it establishes the expectation that something could go wrong which helps to build suspense. In the story Ã¢â¬Å"The MonkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s PawÃ¢â¬ the atmosphere and the setting builds on the expectation that something could go wrong, this leaves the reader anxious to know what exactly will go wrong. In Ã¢â¬ËThe MonkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s PawÃ¢â¬â¢ the author W.W.Jacobs begins the story by setting the scene and the atmosphere by de scribing the area in which the WhiteÃ¢â¬â¢s live. Jacobs describes the night as cold and wet, while inside the house the blinds are drawn and the fire is burning brightly. This is a good contrast, as the house seems to have a warm and safe atmosphere inside, even though the cottage is situated in a remote area of the country, with extremely unpleasant and harsh weather. Before the Sergeant-Major arrives, the atmosphere of the house seems quite tense and dull. Jacobs shows how tense Mr. White is when he writes Ã¢â¬Å"Bawled Mr. White, with sudden and unlooked-for violenceÃ¢â¬ . You can easily see that Mr. White doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to be concentrating on his game of chess.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Siemens - Research Paper Example country specific trends industry trends Social cultural change expectations demographics family change Technological latest technological trends and advancements technology incentives automation Environmental cost implications public opinion sites and locations Legislative European legislation Special government directives Similar to PESTEL's internal external factors SWOT analysis also covers both these aspects classifying them as opportunitites and threats. SWOT SWOT Analysis, is one of the most commonly used strategic tools in business analysis. It evaluates the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats of an organization. Strengths - attributes of the organization that are helpful to its objective. Major plus points. Weaknesses - attributes of the organization that are harmful to its objective. Major negatives. Opportunities - Possible conditions that can help/profit the organization. Threats - Possible conditions that can be harmful for the organization. SWOT analysis identifies both internal and external factors affecting an organization, so the four major categories can be further grouped into two major ones: Internal factors - Strengths and weaknesses are internal factors (depending on their impact on the organization's objectives) External factors - Opportunities and threats are posed by external environment (these factors are more closely related with PESTEL analysis) Porters Five Forces Model The five forces model presented by Michael Porter is one of the most widely used models for understanding the nature of competition in any industry. The five forces according to Porter are: The threat of entry of new competitors (new entrants) The threat of substitutes The bargaining power of buyers The bargaining power of...The first part will give a description of and analyze the primary internal and external influences which affect the organization (Siemens). The second part has to do with current changing competitive environment which the organization has to face. Since organizations do not operate in vacuum and the productivity of an organization is always linked to certain factors which in this case are called influences, it is important for an organization to know what those influences are. Influences can be both internal and external and this report will try to analyze both types since both are equally important. Apart from an analysis of the primary influences on an organization we will also analyze the effect these influences have on Siemens. This technique is an updated form of PEST analysis it stands for Political, Economic, Social, Technical, Environment and Legislative. It analyses the external influences on a business. PESTEL can help understand market growth or decline, business position, and future potential and direction for operations. (Barkema and Vermeulen, 2005) One of the major costs of doing a business is of obtaining raw materials. Suppliers are those entities that supply an organization with that vital component.
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Superfund site - Essay Example After 1992, leasing of the site following procedures defined by the Industrial Development Board. However, the buildings were not tampered with after the leasing of the site until during the cleanup exercise. Current reports indicate that the site is not occupied, but is under the ownership of R&B investments. The site borders two residential homes, and the EPA has carried out assessment tests of the quality of water in these residences after the clean-up process(United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2013). Contamination at the Site Processes involved in the smelting and foundry activities in the process of exploiting brass posed certain risks of contamination to the soil and water in the area. Contamination at the site was also evident at other materials at the site. As outlined by EPA, the soil and water exhibited the highest rate of contamination, although a range of media at the site also exhibited a level of contamination. These media include fish media, sediment, fish tissue, and groundwater. Evidently, contamination occurred on both liquid-based and solid-based media. This contamination was associated with the waste handling process at the site during the brass smelting process. It appears that the relevant efficiency in waste handling was not attained, contributing to a high risk factor of contamination to all the media at the site(United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2013). The contamination posed increased health threats because it affected the shallow water sources, the soils on site, and sediments. Assessment of the risk revealed that the highest contamination at the site was at the area in closest proximity to the smelting and foundry facility that lay on the site. It is worth noting that thorough assessment of the extent of contamination revealed that the drinking water in the adjacent residences was free from the contamination emanating from the site. Contaminants of Concern Analysis and assessment of the evident contamination resulting from the waste handling processes at the site revealed that several contaminants deserving serious concern were evident at the site. Experts highlighted that both metals and polychlorinated biphenyls were the contaminants posing the greatest risk at the site. Investigations on the area highlighted that the metal boron and lead were some of the leading contaminants of concern. Other monitoring processes that analyzed the level of contamination in the wells revealed the presence of nitrate and ammonia as some of the critical contaminants. EPA experts working on the site identified these as the major contaminants posing health risks to the people living in the proximity of the site as well as those proving detrimental to the environment. Clean up Measures Utilized The cleanup activities are planned in a specific order beginning with extensive studies of the site, selection of the most effective remedy, designing the remedy, construction of the remedy plan and post-constructio n activities(United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2013). Usually, EPA takes different clean up measures depending on the level of contamination at the site. Whereas some sites require energy action followed by a long-term remedial action plan of comprehensively studying the site ad developing an effective, clean up resolution. EPA implemented an emergency removal procedure in 1996 that sought to get rid of all the lead-contaminated soils as
Demand and suppy SLP - Essay Example Price: It is considered to be one of the imperative factors which may change the demand of a particular product or service. It can be affirmed that an increase in the price of the products may often lead the customers to purchase substitute products resulting in creating variation in demand at large. Supply: The availability of a product also has a direct influence on the demand of the products. It is often viewed that low supply or higher supply in products to the market may lead in change in demand. Therefore, supply should be made on the basis of the requirement. Competitiveness: It is considered to be the other factor that may lead to alteration in demand of the goods and services by a certain degree. With the increasing competition in the business market, demand of the goods or the services can be viewed to be changed substantially (Stonebraker, 2013). With the growing competition in the business market, it can be viewed that several organizations are coming up with inventing new products that prove to be more advanced and user friendly as compared to others. For example, Samsung, an international producer of electronic products is currently giving tough competition to Apple through offering quality products similar to Apple (Sherr & Lessin, 2013). In order to determine about how the business market changed for AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s particular good or service in the preceding few years, it can be affirmed that the development of pioneering technologies has not only resulted in advancing the existing industry, but also provided greater opportunities to new and upcoming industries. It can be apparently observed that Apple has grown into one of the major manufacturers of mobile devices in recent times. The adoption as well as the employment of pioneering technologies in manufacturing new products eventually helped Apple to
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Information Assurance perspective on cloud ERP solution implementation for Lesley Stowe Fine Foods (LSFF) - Term Paper Example Implementation of cloud ERP solution is a viable option for the enterprise; however, its implementation needs to meet information assurance objectives. Many variables like risks and values exist within any cloud program or opportunity that influences the perspective of the adopted cloud application be it from a business or risk perspective (Information Systems Audit and Control Association, 2011). Nevertheless, the enterprise needs to weigh the variables in order to decide if cloud ERP is the appropriate solution. Clearly, for LSFF to support future business development, the enterprise needs to enhance its IS and IT infrastructure while ensuring it does not incur huge expenses on expensive software and hardware licenses (Compeau& Scott, 2013). Many of these values and risks that affect information assurance in cloud computing vary and include the form of cloud service model, robustness of the existing enterprise IT operations, the prevailing level of business risk acceptance in the e nterprise and the risk from the cloud service provider (Information Systems Audit and Control Association, 2011). Through the cloud ERP solution, LSFF incorporates the value-adding solution to the enterprise by changing its perspective through IA in order to enhance competitive advantage for the business. The paper evaluates the comprehensive concept of IA offered by the cloud ERP solution to ensure that IS serves LSFFÃ¢â¬â¢s transactional needs like operational capability and transformational needs like rapid adaptation, innovation and knowledge management. Over the past 10 years, LSFF witnessed phenomenal growth, which in return had implications on the information systems and IT. Although during this period, rainforest Crisps, which was the enterpriseÃ¢â¬â¢s core product, was available in more than 4,000 outlets across North America, LSFFÃ¢â¬â¢s distribution of the product in US was limited. In addition, even though the enterprise in 2010 moved to a large-scale manufacturing location
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Dependence of Man on the Environment - Essay Example As human beings it is our responsibility to take good care of our nature and our environment. Some people also argue that environment has been created for man and he can use it in any way he wants to. Both have become banners for different power bases, making the arguments itself almost irrelevant. Human beings have the ability to use their actions in a positive way which can be useful for both the environment and their own selves. The idea of working with environmental circumstances rather than trying to control the surroundings must be the motivating idea behind any changes in the relationship with mother earth. Dependence of man on environment is a two-way link; helped in essence by the input that man has manifested within the reigns of the environment itself. The clear cut methodology for having an environmental friendly atmosphere is dependent on the actions (and inactions) of man alone. The development of new and advanced technologies is based on the idea that man can control nature to some extent and thus use it for his defensive ideologies. These changes can range from weather maps to electronic meters, and natural disasters to the natural development of the human race itself. For example, one of the most common motivating factors behind technological development is the environmental aspect of isolated expanding human populations which is, of course, war. Mankind was made and has always been supported by the environment. Both the Bible and the theory of evolution agree with this fact nonetheless. According to Bible, God has created this world and produced human beings. He is the one to have sent Adam as the caretaker of the world as well as its environment. The theory of evolution says that man appeared because he occupied a niche in the environmental scheme of things. The Bible and the theory of evolution agree on other issues as well. They both have concluded t hat mankind can only survive if it cooperates with the environment that exists
Monday, September 23, 2019
International Economic Relations - Essay Example Economies of scale results from external activities undertaken by the firm. The traditional way of doing this is to assume that increasing returns are wholly external to the firm. That is, all economies of scale realized by the firm results from activities in which the firms have no control over (Murthy 25). This means that activities undertaken by the firm do not contribute to any savings on large-scale operations. External economies are too vague and unmeasurable to qualify as an explanation of patterns of trade. Given the economies of scale, each country undertakes to produce only a limited number of products in each industry that is under operation. This pattern of operation is termed as intraindustrial specialization, where each country produces what is essential for offer on other markets (Murthy 46). This makes the implications for the trade pattern straightforward, meaning that each and every nation will be a net exporter in industries in which it possesses a comparative advantage. That is, it will specialize in producing those goods that it can cheaply produce and export or sell them to countries that have limited resources to produce similar goods. This enables the country to realize gains from exporting those goods and thus increases its revenue and overall profitability. Due to intraindustry specialization, each country is capable of importing some products even in some industries in which it is a net exporter. Similarly, a country is capable of exporting some products even in some industries in which it is a net importer. This implies that there will be a presence of both intraindustry as well as interindustry trade, thus enabling the given country to reap both the benefits of comparative advantage and economies of scale (Murthy 55). This article widely explains the intra-industry theory as it allows a country to reap benefits from both exports and imports by partly engaging in
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Plot summary of the old man and the sea Essay The Old Man and The Sea is the story of an epic that makes a very great effort between an old, who has a lot of experience of a particular activity and he is the epitome of a modern human life, it was happened in a small fishing village near Havana,Cuba, The waters of the Gulf of Mexico, in the 1940,s in the twentieth century. The writers of modern age focused on man as well as psyche of man rather than society, so that Ernest Hemingway wants to write the old man and the sea ,which was the old(Santiago) suffered from alienation ,that alone all the time, it was one of the features of modern age. (Miller, 2002: 3). In 1930,s and during the second world war Ernest Hemingway was lived in Cuba, and because he was loved hunting and fishing and in the age of childhood he fished and hunted with his father, so that he began to write the old man and the sea in the last years of his life and published in the 1952 as a single issue of human life in modern age. Miller, 2005:5). Note; In that small village, the villagers must work, which work it is fishing to get money so as to sustain in life, so that each members in the village go to sea with his boat or skiff in the early morning for fishing, and Santiago, old Cuban fisherman was one of them, but alone. As (Ernest Hemingway said). He had a shack which was a small building made of woods, in it a bed, a table, one chair, a picture in colour of Sacred heart of Jesus and another of Virgin of Cobre of his wife on the shelf in the corner under his shirt. He had a small boat and gone eighty-four days without took a fish. The boy named Manolin, that the old man took him when he was five years old and the boy loved him too much and loyalty for him, when the boy saw him without taking a fish in the first forty days while he took three fish in the first week. It made the boy, unlucky to see the old man each day went and came, went and came with his skiff empty and without fish, then the boy came to help him such as coiled lines or the pole, harpoon, brought coffee, sometimes with some food from Martin or Perico, and newspapers that talked about baseball, then it would been the discussion between Santiago and Manolin, that Santiago had a huge dmired for the Great DiMaggio, he was great in baseball player, and whose father was fisherman. The boy left him because his parents forced him to do, and go to another boat. The parents of the boy with the villagers called Santiago salau or unlucky and laughed at him, but Santiago said toward Manolin I knew you did not leave me because you doubted, then the boy said no it was true because my father made me left, so I must obey him, finally the boy left him and Santiago goes to sleep, in his sleep he dreamt lions that played on the white beach of Africa, this was a sense when he was a very young man. The next morning before sunrise Santiago went to ManolinÃ¢â¬â¢s house to wake Manolin so as to carry SantiagoÃ¢â¬â¢s gear to his boat and drinking coffee, on the beach wished each other good luck. (Miller, 1988: 3-20). This time that started with the new day Santiago decided to go far out from others fisherman in the sea, he rowed steadily away from shore toward the deep waters of Gulf Stream. The first he heard the leaps of the flying fish then he saw flying fish pursued by dolphins a diving, circled seabird, he considered to be his friend, and he followed farther and farther out the seabird that was hunting for fish. One of the old manÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ lines goes taut, and then the old man said out laud, would made a lovely piece of bait. Big fish pulled the boat every day farthest from shore until lost lights of his village. He canÃ¢â¬â¢t increase the tension on the line, because if it was too tauted it will be break and the fish will get away. It was a kind of struggle big fish (Marlin), and Santiago, that Marlin wants to get free and the old man wants to get his aim, goal, and desire that stands for life. Because he could not took big fish in to his boat and said a loud I wished I had the boy, but nothing, then he said to himself you have to work better, it was a kind of encourage himself, and he was optimistic all the time although he was alone, and canÃ¢â¬â¢t catch a fish, so as to helped himself he said toward Marlin I loved you and I respect you but I will killed you dead before sunset, after that a small tired bird named (Warble) came from north toward the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s boat, perched on the taut fishing line that linked the old man to the big fish, the old man told the bird to stayed and rested here to live and to sustain like other any man or birds, he said you were tired and loneliness as me. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t mentioned the Hawks that waited for little bird, suddenly the Marlin surged, and the bird left him without any reaction, Santiago didnÃ¢â¬â¢t aware of the bird because his hand was bled, while marlin was quiet, the old man took the line with his back and ate the tuna that he caught day before, then turned to his imaginary mind to baseball, the great DiMaggio, and he wondered if DiMaggio would stayed with the marlin. The marlin woke and jumped out of water again and again and began to circle around the boat for hours and the line taken by SantiagoÃ¢â¬â¢s hand that fought with the circling fish, after hat he pulled the fish on to it was side by the boat and plunged his harpoon in to it. (Miller; Asiaing. com, 10-37). Note; now he was happy, comfort and without any harm or pain because he got or completed his great aim, desire with the catching of big fish. Here the long strength struggle finished between The Old Man, and the Marlin with the fish lurched out of the water and dead, he pulled the boat toward the fish fastened the fish to the side of the boat. He thought how much money he could make from such a big fish, and he imagined that DiMaggio would be proud of him. The old man found himself wondered, luck, happy, and got his aim, goal, and he rowed toward his village with the great won in his life, but his happiness long less which an hour later amako shark arrived having smelled the marlinÃ¢â¬â¢s blood, the second fight and struggle began with sharks that wanted to eat the marlinÃ¢â¬â¢s flesh, he was able to killed a number of sharks with his knife and weapon, but he lost his knife and things in the process. He was failure after all and when he got back to the shore of his village there was nothing left but the head, the Skelton, and tail of the marlin. He beached his boat and went to his small building slept and dreamed the lions and turtles. The next morning, Manolin came to the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s shack with brought a coffee and despite the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s bad luck he decided to go fishing with him again. The entire fisherman had gathered around the SantiagoÃ¢â¬â¢s boat and measured the Skelton at eighteen feet. Hemingway employed a number of images that link Santiago to Christ, the model of transcendence, who turned loss in to gain, defeat in to triumph, and even death in to new life, and as a representative character for everyone in the society. (Miller, 2002:26-31). Major Characters in the old man and the sea: *Just we had two major characters, 1-Santiago, (The Old Man). 2-Manolin, (The Boy). -Santiago; The old man of the novellaÃ¢â¬â¢s title. He was a Cuban fisherman, suffered terribly throughout The Old man and The Sea, he had went eighty-four days without caught a fish, and became laughingstock of his village, but he was able to patient. (Miller, 2002: 5). -Manolin; was present only in the beginning and in the end of The Old Man and the Sea, but his presence was important, because ManolinÃ¢â¬â¢s love and loyalty for Santiago highlighted the SantiagoÃ¢â¬â¢s valued as a person and as a fisherman. (Miller, 2005:6). Minor Characters in the old man and the sea: We had four minor characters in the old man and the sea. 1-Marlin, (Big fish). 2-Joe DiMaggio. 3-Martin. 4-Perico. *Marlin; It was a big fish, which was the greatest aim and goal of Santiago. The struggle more than three days between Santiago and Marlin, it was the trying by Santiago to catch Marlin, he had took marlin, but it was destroyed by sharks later. (Miller, 2002:5). *Joe DiMaggio; although he never appeared in the story. He was one of American most famous baseball players; Santiago worshiped him as a model of strengthen and young. (Miller, 1988: 55-56). Note; he always *Martin; Martin a cafe owner in SantiagoÃ¢â¬â¢s village, didnÃ¢â¬â¢t appeared in the story. Manolin often went to martin for SantiagoÃ¢â¬â¢s supper and others. (Miller, 1988:12). *Perico; perico was the owner of the bodega in the SantiagoÃ¢â¬â¢s village. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t appear in the novella the old man and the sea, but he served an important role in the fishermanÃ¢â¬â¢s life about the scored of the baseballÃ¢â¬â¢s newspaper.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Distribution channel management CHAPTER 1: Introduction This chapter will introduce the topic, specify the key aim and objectives of the dissertation, discuss the research approach and state the dissertation outline. The key aim of this chapter is to establish the foundation for the research topic by giving out basic information. Introduction The research is about study of distribution channel management at Dell Computers, UK. The dissertation is more practical in nature, studying the Distribution Channels of Dell, both at a strategic and an operational level. I would be analysing the business function on its efficiency and effectiveness, comparing with the other industry performers. I would mostly be comparing the function against Sony Electronics, the most respected name in multi-channel distribution network; Acer, pioneer of value computing products and proprietary brands like Advent. Dell Inc. is a multibillion dollar, multinational technology firm that manufactures, develops, sells and supports personal computing and computer related products. Dell has seen a rapid growth to become one of the top three vendors in the PC manufacturing industry, and has seen a substantial increase in share price and market value. While many other companies were unable to handle the demands of the competition, Dell has proved successful in such an environment. The main key to success to Dell has been its two innovative practices that is direct sales and build-to-order business model. This model is simple as a concept but highly complex to execute, especially in the present conditions of rapid growth and change. Dell has continually renewed and extended its business model while striking a balance between control and edibility. Dell made changes in its design, manufacturing, procurement, and logistics processes to reduce the costs, and to speed up the entire distribution system. It has expanded into International markets and it started making notebook and server product lines which has led to extraordinary profits for dell, and has given a great market value for the company. Dell has reached sales of $18.2 billion by the year 1998, with a profit of $1.46 billion, and Dells market share in the PC market grew from 3% in 1995 to 9.2% in the year 1999 with stock price increasing by 40 times. Dells market capitalization has reached $100 billion. Research aim and Questions The primary purpose of my research work is to analyse the role distribution channels play in the functioning of a business, both in the long run and in the short run. My study is to present a detailed description of the unique distribution channel adopted by Dell Inc., analyse its efficiency and effectiveness, identify possible loopholes and put forth recommendations for development. My study is being undertaken with an aim to answer the following research questions: How are the various distribution channels organised within Dell Inc.? How does it compare with its competitors? How effective and efficient is this channel management at Dell? What can be done to make it better? The four research questions are the guiding blocks of my entire research and all of the work would be keeping them in view. Distribution Channels within Dell: I would be looking at Dells innovative distribution channel management which has literally revolutionised the importance of Direct Marketing in the consumer electronics space. Direct marketing is still the primary distribution mechanism within Dell. I would be documenting the evolution of this concept within Dell right from its customized sales regime during PCs Limited to the complex and sophisticated systems that it employs currently. I would be presenting a visual of the entire distribution network that it stands at today. Comparison with its competitors: I would be comparing the dynamic distribution systems of its arch rivals. Sony, Acer, Advent and HP Compaq are the brands that I would be concentrating upon. I would be looking at the strategies adopted in different economies, though my primary concentration would be on the English markets. Efficiency and Effectiveness: I would be conducting an efficiency and effectiveness test of Dells powerful distribution network against its competitors. This would be an empirical study. I would be concentrating on the parameters of Customer Satisfaction and Vendor relationship management. Recommendations: Finally, I would be putting forth recommendations for future developments along with the cost benefit analysis of such implementations. Research approach The study is conducted by collecting secondary data and primary data. Secondary data is collected from books, journals, government websites, company documents whereas primary data is collected by means of survey questionnaire distributed among channel partners and the end customers. Participants of research would be intermediaries in the distribution network and the end customer. In order to select the participants the study has made use of stratified random sampling method in order to make sure that major demographic segments are represented while selecting the samples (Rao Skinner, 1996). Questionnaire design consists of two parts. The first part contained the demographic information while the second part dwelled on each of the subjects perception on each variable using five point likert scales from 1 (Strongly Agree) to 5(Strongly Disagree). The study did not require any assistance from a third party or any other institution. In order to collect data the study made use of web portal survey to distribute survey and get responses. The system was designed in such a way that the respondent have to submit all the answers. Out of 60 questionnaires, responses for 50 surveys were obtained. The duration for the survey was kept as two weeks, a reminder mail was being sent to the respondents at the end of week one to remind them. Importance of the study Organizations have been undergoing strategic changes over the past decade. More so in the past couple of years. The current recession has proved that risk management and strategic planning are most vital for an organizations long lasting and self-sustaining performance. My work will strive to highlight one such areas of strategic thinking and inform the senior management about the benefits involved. Research Scope My work would primarily be concentrated on the UK market. Though Dell is a global corporation with intermediaries present across the globe, all working towards forming an effective value chain to maximize business potential and ensure efficiency in operations; UK being the second biggest market after the US will be a general approximation of the entire organizational behaviour. Furthermore, the cosmopolitan nature of London and demographic diversity ensures that it would be a close estimate of the general population. Limitation of Research I intend to undertake my research as comprehensively as possible. As in any research work, inherent are some unavoidable drawbacks in my study. Few of them are: Financial and Time Constraints: As outlined before, the scope of my work is limited to the English market. Financial and time constraints of my semester mean that Im not able to conduct a global research that would be more apt in this case. Personal bias. Most of my work is conducted through a personal observation method; as such it is prone to my personal bias. However as the person who is to do the entire research right from formulation of research questions to recommending solutions, I would be most qualified to comment on the topic. Information Constraints. Distribution channel model is a sensitive piece of company information. Though I have secured access to Dell, wherein I could do all the data mining myself, the extent of information that I would be able to muster about the rivals model is still to be seen. Dissertation outline The structure of the dissertation is as follows Chapter 1: Chapter 1 encompass introduction to the topic, followed by brief background into the research topic. This beginning chapter also lays bare aims and objectives of the research followed by structure of the thesis. Apart from that this chapter also gives information on the research approach adopted and the limitations of the research. Chapter 2: The literature review section of the dissertation explores the definition of distribution, channel, and distribution channel and distribution channel management. Apart from that the section also examines the activities and the levels of distribution channel. The latter half of the section focuses on the distribution strategy adopted by Dell, Sony and Acer. The final section compares the distribution strategy by all the three players. Chapter 3: The thesis then moves on to methodology section wherein the research model, research framework and data collection methodology is discussed. Questionnaire method is used to collect the necessary data from the consumer. Chapter 4: This chapter explores data findings Chapter 5: This chapter presents the conclusion. Chapter 6: This includes references using Harvard referencing style Chapter 7: This includes the Appendix Summary The chapter introduced the topic of the dissertation, specified the key aims and objectives of the research. Discussed the research approach in form of secondary and primary data collection through the means of questionnaire and clearly stated the limitations of the research in brief. The chapter also outlines the research structure specifying the contents of each chapter. Chapter 2: Literature Review During my research, I would primarily be looking towards the concepts of Distribution Channel and its management. I would be guided by the various contributions in the field, though my work would primarily be influenced by the theories and suggestions of Philip Kotler in the area. A Professor of Business Studies at the Kelloggs Business School, Kotler is often regarded as the Father of Modern Marketing. My work also coincides with various other management thinking like Consumer Behaviour, Relationship Management, Marketing Mix and Optimization, among others. Definition Distribution Kotler (1996) states that distribution is a key element in the marketing mix (place amongst the 4Ps). It is the systems and practices in use which make a product or service available to the consumer of such a product or service. Channel Channel is defined as a set of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for consumption or use (Gorchels, West, Marien, 2004). It can also encompass physical movement, warehousing, ownership of the product, presale transaction, post-sale activities; order processing, credit and collections; and other different types of support activities (Gorchels, West, Marien, 2004). Distribution Channel The Distribution Channel is the chain of intermediaries, each of them passing on the product or service to another intermediary until it reaches the consumer. The business dictionary defines it as The route by which a product or service is moved from a producer or supplier to customers. A distribution channel usually consists of a chain of intermediaries, including wholesalers, retailers, and distributors, that is designed to transport goods from the point of production to the point of consumption in the most efficient way (Dictionary, 2010) Another definition of Distribution channel states A group of independent and interdependent organizations involved in the sale and movement of goods and services to the end users may be called a distribution channel or network (Gorchels, West, Marien, 2004). More specifically, a distribution channel is: The transfer of goods from manufacturer to the end user. Route of a company for distributing the goods. The process of moving goods from the manufacturer to the consumer. A supply chain consisting of all parties in between production to the end user. Types of channel members The activities in the distribution channel can be carried out by the marketer himself or it can be carried out by specialist organizations. The specialist organizations and the channel members can be categorized into two types. Resellers Specialty Service Firms. Resellers are the companies which usually buy and take the ownership of the products from the manufacturer with the intention of selling to end consumers. An organization can have one or more than one reseller in the chain. The network or chain of resellers is known as reseller network. The resellers can be further classified into: Retailers: A retailer sells the product directly to the end customer. Wholesalers: Wholesalers buy the products from manufacturer or other wholesalers and then they sell the products to the retailers. Industrial Distributors: They are the ones who sell products from one business to other, they are suppliers who buy the goods and sell it to another firm. Specialty service firms are organizations that do not take the ownership of the products. They also provide additional services along with the products. Specialty firms can be: Agents and brokers: They are the firms which bring together the suppliers and buyers and mediate the sale and they charge a fee for this kind of service. Distribution service firms: They provide services which help with the movement of goods in the distribution channels like transportation, processing and storage of goods and products. Others: They are the firms which provide other services to the channels in distribution like insurance, routing assistance etc. The distribution channels consist of many parties among which each of them is trying to meet their objectives. Relationships between channel members should be strong with each others especially on which they are depending for the further distribution of product. Levels The arrangement of the distribution channels can be classified into two types: Independent channel arrangements. Dependent channel arrangements. Independent channel arrangements: In this type of arrangement the channel members negotiate deals with others which do not result in the binding of the relationships. Channel members are free to make arrangements which they feel is in their own and best interest. An individual member decides what is best for them and not the entire channel. This is also called conventional distribution arrangement and often significant conflict as each member decides what is best for him and not in concern with the entire channel There are four levels of distribution channels. Channel 1 is called the direct marketing channel which is the distribution of products or services from the manufacturer to the customer. The best example for this channel is Dell which does not makes use of any intermediaries to distribute its products to end customers; there are no retailers, agents or wholesalers. The channel does not have any intermediaries. This type of channel helps to eradicate the excess cost and also helps to have good control over the quality and marketing. The other three channels fall in the category of indirect marketing channels. The second channel has one intermediary, if the market is a consumer market the one intermediary is basically a retailer. Electronic consumer goods market of UK is an example of second type of channel arrangement. In this type of distribution arrangement the companies sell good to large retail chains, example would be Sony, Canon, and HP selling their electronic goods to large retail chains such as Dixons. These retailers in return sell the goods to the end customer. The role of the wholesale in this channel is to buy the products at bulk from the manufacturer and then sell the same to retailer in smaller quantities. This model works best for retailers on small scale and not for big chains such as Dixons. This type of distribution channel is best when there are large number of small retailers and not big companies. Example in this case would be the medical drugs distribution market in the UK. The fourth channel has added level to it in the form of agents who work as intermediary between manufacturer and wholesaler. The agent acts as representative for both the sides. This works in textile market. A direct distribution channel is where a company sells their products direct to consumers. While direct channels were not popular many years ago, the Internet has greatly increased the use of direct channels. Additionally, companies needing to cut costs may use direct channels to avoid middlemen mark-ups on their products. Distributors, wholesalers and retailers are the primary indirect channels a company may use when selling their products in the marketplace. Companies choose the indirect channel best suited for their product to obtain the best market share; it also allows them to focus on producing their goods. Though, in practicality, a number of other players exist, they can be generalised to the above. The specific channel of distribution adopted by a company depends, to a major extent, on its business model, the industry type and the scale of its operations. As an Instance, Sony has its own set of company operated exclusive showrooms. The strong brand equity of Sony, the scale of its business and clearly identifiable product differentiations that it enjoys with the consumers, allow it to leverage on its economies of scale and scope by operating its own outlets. Directly, this result in better margins for the company and indirectly it helps building on its already demanding brand leadership. Dell, on the other hand, relies more on online sales. This is because of the organization of its service delivery utility. Dells business model is based upon its centralised manufacturing facilities, rather than the nuclear organization at Sony. Online sales suits such a strategy by negating the high costs of transportation and inventory planning issues involved. A manufacturer selling a physical product might require three channels: Sales Channel, Delivery Channel, and Service Channel. In Our case, Dell uses telephone and internet as sales channels, express mail services as the delivery channel and local repair people as its service channel. Distribution Channel Activities Distribution includes different range of activities (Richard Gay, 2007) Linking many suppliers to provide wide range of consumer choice Assist the exchange process identify the needs of the buyer in the context of product categories, quantities, range etc. and devise manufacturing, inventory and packaging schedules to fit. Marketing information: This encompass collection, distribution and analysing marketing research information such as the past sales data about the players within the organizations marketing environment. Promotional activities- This involves setting of promotional objectives and activating the various elements of the marketing communications mix and measuring their effectiveness, this will encompass identify and communicate with prospects. Pricing: Deciding on the sales terms and conditions at each stage of the value chain Risk management This includes analysis and resource sourcing required for involvement in the channel , the degree of control and influence and the potential benefits such as revenue and profit generation. Physical Distribution Management It includes the transportation all aspects of warehousing management and information flows. Other Activities that may be part of the distribution channels are as follows: Order Generation. Handling of Goods. Shipping of Goods. Storage of Goods. Display of Goods. Promotion of Goods. Sale. Feedback. Distribution Channel Management Distribution Channel Management is all about getting the product or service to the right people at the right time under the constraints of profits, efficiency and effectiveness. Successful marketing does not end when a business has developed a product or service and has found its appropriate target audience with a view to selling it at the right price. The next issue that needs to be faced is how they are going to distribute and sell this product/service to these people- the consumers. When a product/service is purchased by a consumer, it may have been bought directly from the business, or it may have been through a number of intermediaries (wholesaler, retailer, etc.): these are known as distribution channels. Small businesses need to acknowledge the different types of distribution channels to utilize sales potential. Distribution channel management involves a lot of channel decisions, strategic alternatives and numerous linking concepts, all of which would be explored in my research paper. Distribution channel management involves a lot of channel decisions, strategic alternatives and numerous linking concepts. The PC industry is driven by rapid technological improvements in components, particularly microprocessors, other semiconductors, and storage devices. The improved performance of hardware has been matched historically by increased complexity of software, creating demand for the latest hardware. This means that time is a critical competitive factor in the industry in two ways: Firstly, excess inventory loses value (at an estimated 10% per month Ã°Å¸Ëâ° and costs money; Secondly, products incorporating the most advanced technologies are in high demand and carry a price premium. As a result, companies that minimize inventory and bring new products to market faster can reduce costs, increase market share, and maintain higher margins. Two factors come into play in determining the ability of PC companies to manage inventory and introduce new products. First is the standardized, modular nature of the PC. PCs are built from standard components, using common architectural interfaces determined largely by Intel, Microsoft, and, earlier, IBM. PC makers also can outsource much of their production and purchase components from a well-established production network of contract manufacturers and components suppliers. This makes it quite easy for PC companies to introduce new PCs with the most advanced technologies. By the 1990s, PC makers could no longer gain much of an edge by virtue of design and manufacturing, as everyone had access to the same technical information and supply base. The difference among PC companies was determined increasingly by the second factor-the structure of distribution. The traditional distribution system of the PC industry is an indirect model often referred to as the channel. The PC maker sells its products to distributors, who buy products from many manufacturers and then sell them to a variety of retailers, resellers, system integrators, and others, who sell products and services to the final customer. This distribution system was an effective means for distributing high volumes of PCs with a variety of configurations to reach a broad customer base. However, it had inherent weaknesses that left it vulnerable in a time-based competitive environment. First was its reliance on market forecasting to drive production. Even the most successful PC makers, such as IBM, Apple, and Compaq, were chronically bedevilled by their inability to accurately forecast demand in a market driven by ever shorter product cycles. They were either caught with short supplies of hot products, causing them to lose sales to competitors, or stuck with excess inventories of slow sellers, which clogged the distribution channels and often had to be sold at a loss to move them out. Even with the best forecasting, the indirect model was plagued by the need to hold inventory at each step. In the early 1990s, it was common for PC makers to have up to 90 days of inventory on hand and in the channel. The high inventory costs and lack of responsiveness of the indirect channel meant that there was an opportunity for someone who could a way to circumvent the channel. The company that seized this opportunity was Dell, which pioneered a new business model based on selling PCs directly to the final customer, and building the PC only when an order was received Selling directly removes two links in the supply chain where inventory could build up and also enables Dell to know its final customers, provide better service to them, and promote repeat or expanded sales to them. Build-to-order production allows Dell to introduce new technologies as soon as customers want them and makes it possible to adjust production to demand very quickly. It also means that Dell does not purchase components and assemble PCs until it has received payment from the customer, giving the company a negative cash conversion cycle in which it receives payment from customers before it must pay suppliers. The current environment for the computer hardware industry is shaped by several macro forces. Primarily, Dell and its competitors are influenced by economic, demographic, technological and national forces. Government, social, physical and national forces peripherally affect the computer hardware industry to varying degrees. The commoditization of the personal computer-a vital tool for business and consumer. Customers- are a key driver for the economics of this industry. Corporate spending accounts for 80% of all technology spending, and economic conditions decreasing business capital expenditures has a negative and direct impact on the computer hardware industry. While this industry is mature in the U.S., leading to decreased growth expectations, computer spending by other countries around the world will likely fill this void. Pricing in the computer manufacturing industry is extremely competitive. IT reflects the rapid pace of technological change and decreasing PC costs. Since 2000, the prices of chips and disk drives declined and the standardization of primary components of PCs led to a decline in PC prices. Direct sellers, including Dell, have traditionally been able to under-price indirect sellers in the industry including Compaq and HP. However, most PC vendors now offer a desktop model for less than $500 and a laptop for $700. Key success factors for companies in this industry continue to evolve as the industry matures. Specifically, they include: Competitive prices Superior relationships with suppliers Product customization for business and consumer customers Quality customer service Excellent cost structure Channel Issues Some of the channels issues that the companies face are as follows Product related issues Promotions related issue Pricing related issues Target market related issue Product related issues: The nature and type of the product decides the distribution option that should be chosen for the product. A few products require special handling. Ex. Flowers, Fragile goods etc. Promotion related issues: The type of promotions that are required to sell the products to the customers also decides the distribution options; there are products which require an extensive contact of the sales person with the customer like automobiles etc. and there are products which require no sales assistance from the sales person like milk etc. Pricing issues: The price at which the marketer desires to sell their product also decides the distribution option for the channel if a product is prices really less it cannot have many members in the distribution channel as each one of them looks at making their own profit in the channel. Target market issues: The distribution channel is successful only if the product can reach the right customer. Choosing a distribution channel is the path to reach the target customer. A key decision in setting of a channel arrangement is for the marketer to choose the approach to reach his target customer in the best possible manner. Dell Company Background Dell Inc. is a multibillion dollar, multinational technology firm that manufactures, develops, sells and supports personal computing and computer related products. Based out of Texas, it employs over 75,000 people globally and is amongst the biggest players in the personal computing space. With revenues crossing 60 billion dollars in 2009, it is a Fortune 500 listing. Dell is a brainchild of Michael Dell, when he was a student at the University of Texas. PCs limited was started by him with a meagre capital of $1,000. The company produced its first computer in 1985, the Turbo PC sold for $1,000. Powered by an Intel 8088 compatible processor running at 8 MHz, it was the start of the most successful story in the modern computing space. Pcs Limited offered these machines in a variety of specifications, customised to each order amongst a pre-defined choice sets. Though not the first company to use this model, it was the pioneer to succeed using it. In its first year of trading, the compan y grossed over $ 70 million. In 1988, the company was renamed as Dell Computer Corporation. In 1987, the company expand overseas with a fully functional service and assembly centre in Ireland. Within the next few months, the count reached eleven. In June 1998, Dell became public with a 50 million dollar Initial Public Offering, one of the biggest in its times. In 1990, Dell test marketed a multi-channel retail distribution strategy with little success and was forced to return back to its direct marketing channel. In 1992, Dell featured in the Fortune 500 list for the first time. In 1992, it started on line sales, by offering its products, initially through its own website and later on through various partners and compare websites. In 2002, Dell expanded its product line by foraying into the consumer electronics segment. It also started manufacturing computer accessories with the launch of the dell branded home and office printers. In 2003, the company was named Dell Inc. so as to parallel its brand name with the variety of product offerings that it started. In 2005, Dell saw its international sales exceeding its domestic ones for the first name. The company was now a truly global performer, featuring in the top 5 power brands, both in the emerging markets as well as the developed economies (Dell Inc., 2006). Organizational Structure Dell Corporations organizational structure is a functional, decentralized structure. The company encourages different departments and functional components to contribute ideas to enhance the strength of the organization. The hierarchical structure provides defines the various functions provided by D
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Andy Dufresne8217s Search for a Perfect World in the Shawshank Redemption Ã¯ » ¿Andy Dufresne's Search For A Perfect World Andy Dufresne (Tim Robbins) is a wrongly convicted lawyer, serving time in the hell known as Shawshank Prison for the murder of his adulterous wife. AndyÃ¢â¬â¢s life in prison starts off miserably. He finds maggots in his food, is regularly raped by Ã¢â¬Å"the SistersÃ¢â¬ , a group of prisoners who beat an rape other prisoners, and is threatened an harassed by the prisonÃ¢â¬â¢s guards. However, as time goes on, Andy slowly turns the hell he lives in into a livable, if not perfect world. He files the guardsÃ¢â¬â¢ tax returns, so that he saves the guards money in ways they could never have found. In return, the guards protect him for the sisters. He even helps the warden of Shawshank to launder money. (The warden receives bribes in exchange for the free prison labor he offers to farmers and businesses around the state.) Andy also befriends the prisonÃ¢â¬â¢s one man black market, a man known as Red (Morgan Freeman), and is able to purchase a few luxuries. Through Red, Andy buys a rock hammer, which he uses to carve a chess set, and posters of the decadesÃ¢â¬â¢ most beautiful women (as time goes on, Rita Hayworth is replaced by Marilyn Monroe. Andy, though, still has dreams of a truly perfect world, one without walls or cells, where he can be truly free. This causes Andy to work every night at digging tunnel out of the prison and into the outside world. Before Andy escapes, he tells Red about a place to go to, if he should ever get out of prison. Then one night he escapes. He then empties every account he built up while working for the warden. After which he exposes the money laundering scheme going on inside the prison. Finally Red gets parole, and he joins Andy on a sunny beach in Mexico. Andy has found his Utopia, a place where he has a friend, and no restrictions. Tim Robbins does an excellent job of portraying a man stuck amongst rapists, murderers, and thieves. Robbins shows just the right amount of unbeaten hope, combined with a certain distant, aloof look at times, put together these show that he, unlike the rest of the prisoners, has an internal fire, separating him from the rest of the inmates.
Regarded by many as one of AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest Prime Ministers, John Curtin assumed office just six weeks before the bombing of Pearl Harbor and led Australia through the darkest hours of World War II. No prime minister has had a more profound effect on Australia and no man has given more in the service of his office. Curtin was born in the Victorian mining town of Creswick on January 8, 1885. His parents were Irish immigrants. His father worked first as a policeman, then as a publican, and the family moved frequently from town to town. His much interrupted education ended when he left school at 14 and began to supplement the family incomeÃ¢â¬âas a printer's apprentice, a labourer, a clerk, and a newspaper copyboy which as you can see lead him to champion rights of lower society. CurtinÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in social issues and the plight of the working class led him to become actively involved in the labour movement and he joined the Victorian Socialist Party in 1906. He soon became known as an eloquent and inspiring speaker and this ability enabled him to unite the people of Australia in a way unprecedented then and unsurpassed since. John Curtin was just beginning his working life as Australia became a Federated nation. Despite moving away from his Irish Catholic background, he was evidently influenced by it and by the poverty of his upbringing to realise that Australia was not an equal society, and that the major task of a national government was to govern for the good of all the people. In 1917 he moved to Perth as editor of the Ã¢â¬Å"Westralian WorkerÃ¢â¬ . While living in Western Australia, he developed a realisation that Federation disadvantaged some states. He believed that some of these weaknesses occurred because the Constitution had not been followed closely enough. He never lost his faith in the spirit and intention of Federation .He first entered politics in 1928 as the Member for Fremantle in the House of Representatives, but his term was cut short when Labor was defeated in 1931 and he lost his seat. However, one year after re-entering parliament in 1934, he was elected parliamentary leader and when the Fadden government collapsed, Curtin became Prime Minister in October, 1941 He had a remarkable grasp of economics, and in four years his government overhauled the national economy, creating full employment in the process. He and his cabinet made a number of other revolutionary changes in the fabric of Australian life, particularly in the liberalisation of social welfare and immigration policies .
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The Scaffold's Power in The Scarlet Letter Recurring events show great significance and elucidate the truth beneath appearances. In The Scarlet Letter, Nathaniel Hawthorne chooses the scaffold scenes to show powerful differences and similarities. Each scaffold scene foreshadows the next and brings greater understanding of the novel. By beginning with the first, continuing with the middle, and ending with the last platform scene, we can gain a better understanding of this masterpiece. At the beginning of the book, Hester is brought out with Pearl to stand on the scaffold. Here the scarlet letter is revealed to all. Reverend Dimmesdale, Pearl's Father, is already raised up on a platform to the same height as Hester and Pearl; and Roger Chillingworth, Hester's lost husband, arrives, stands below and questions the proceedings. As Hester endures her suffering, Dimmesdale is told to beseech the woman to confess. It was said "So powerful seemed the ministers appeal that the people could not believe but that Hester Prynne would speak out the guilty name." His powerful speech shows Dimmesdale's need to confess. This scene sets the stage for the next two scenes. A few years later the event is again repeated. It is very similar to the other and helps us understand the torment of Dimmesdale. As before the tortured Reverend Dimmesdale goes first on to the platform. He seeks a confession of his sins a second time by calling out into the night. He then sees Hester and Pearl coming down the street from the governor's house. As before, they are asked to go up on the scaffold and be with the minister. At this time Pearl questions the minister if he will do this at noontide and he answers no. He once again is too much of a coward to confess out in the open. The similarities continue with a revelation of another scarlet letter. Up in the sky a scarlet "A" shines forth. Roger Chillingworth arrives and tells the minister to get down from the scaffold. Chillingworth pleads for this so that he can still torment the reverend. As the two men leave, the scene ends and leaves us with additional information. It foreshadows a bigger and more
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Name Teacher AP U. S. History October 8, 2012 DBQ From the years of 1941 to 1949, there was an increase in suspicion and tension between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was a Communist country ruled by a dictator while America was a capitalist democracy that valued freedom. Their completely different beliefs and aims caused friction to form between them, which contributed to the creation of the Cold War. At the start of the first world war, Germany and the Soviet Union signed a nonaggression pact.With Germany and the Soviet Union being allies, the rest of the world had their suspicions. In the U. S. , Senator Truman expressed his dislike of both countries and his view of them as potential enemies(Doc A). Unfortunately for the Soviet Union, the pact between him and Hitler was soon broken by a German invasion. The invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941 was a surprise to everyone, especially Stalin who was not prepared for it. According to Churchill, it w as the turning point of the war. This turn on Stalin seemed like a great thing, if the Soviet Union hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t collapsed so quickly.With the fear of the Soviet UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s surrender, Churchill and Roosevelt secretly met in the historic Atlantic Conference in August 1941. An outcome of the conference was the eight-point Atlantic Charter, where Churchill and Roosevelt agreed to defeat Germany before turning to Japan, and they planned for a new world organization, and affirmed their commitment to self-determination for all nations. In the midst of war, tensions were expressed in terms of which nation will emerge as world leader after the war.By 1943, the Allied nations were all committed to winning the war and creating a world in which Ã¢â¬Å"men in all lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want. Ã¢â¬ That was there goal even though they had yet come up with the basis for a world organization. In 1943, the foreign ministers of the United States, the Soviet Un ion, and Great Britain all met to discuss and define their goal. The United States Secretary of State, Cordell Hull, made the flight to journey to Moscow for the conference(Doc B). The Moscow Declaration was signed on October 30, 1943.In December, two months later, the three leaders issued a Ã¢â¬Å"Declaration of the Three Powers Regarding Iran. Ã¢â¬ The Soviet Union had committed to joining the war against Japan and expressed support for Roosevelt's plans for the United Nations. Roosevelt felt confident that he had won Stalin's trust by proving that the U. S. was willing to negotiate directly with the Soviet Union and by guaranteeing the opening of the second front in France by the spring of 1944. However, Stalin also gained tentative concessions on Eastern Europe that would be confirmed during the later wartime conferences.In 1945, the famed meeting of the heads of government of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held to discuss the reestablishment of the nati ons of a war-torn Europe. The Yalta Conference, held near Yalta in the Crimea, was the second of three wartime conferences held among the Big Three. The Yalta conferees, Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill, confirmed the policy adopted at the Casablanca Conference of demanding Germany's unconditional surrender. There they made plans to divide Germany into four zones of occupation under a united control commission in Berlin for war crimes trials.The Polish eastern border would follow the Curzon Line, and Poland would receive territorial compensation in the West from Germany. Discussing Poland, Churchill wanted to ensure free elections. He pointed out that the U. K. Ã¢â¬Å"could never be content with any solution that did not leave Poland a free and independent state. Ã¢â¬ Stalin pledged to permit free elections in Poland, but forestalled ever honoring his promise. Stalin talked with Roosevelt and concluded that Churchill didnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand the RussianÃ¢â¬â¢s fears regarding G ermany(Doc C).These misunderstandings caused new suspicions on both sides. The Big Three asked China and France to join them in sponsoring the founding conference of the United Nations. The USSR secretly agreed to enter the war against Japan within three months of Germany's surrender and was promised S. Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, and an occupation zone in Korea. The secret agreement also provided that the Manchurian railroads should be under joint Chinese-Soviet administration. The subsequent outbreak of the cold war and Soviet successes in EasternEurope led to much criticism in the United States of the Yalta Conference and of Roosevelt, who was accused of delivering Eastern Europe to Communist domination. In the Soviet Union, foreign minister V. M. Molotov made a broadcast following the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan(Doc E). Molotov felt compelled to take preventive actions in response. Molotov condemned the Marshall Plan as imperialistic and he claimed it was dividing Eur ope into a capitalist and communist camp. In response he initiated the Molotov Plan.This plan created several bilateral relations between the states of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union and later evolved into the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. Molotov was expressing the views of many Russians, that they saw the West as reneging on its promises made at Yalta and Potsdam. In the United States, an article was published in The New York Times announcing that Czechoslovakia had become a communist state(Doc F). Under pressure from the Czechoslovakian Communist Party, President Eduard Benes allows a communist-dominated government to be organized.In response, America eliminated a large loan to Czechoslovakia that outraged parties in Czechoslovakia. In the London Evening Standard, a cartoon was published portraying Stalin plotting to conquer the rest of Europe(Doc G). The symbolism of the cartoon in Great Britain was the heightened distrust of Russian leaders and it was concrete ev idence of the tensions that sparked the Cold War. Although the Soviet Union did not physically intervene, Western observers decried the virtually bloodless communist coup as an example of Soviet expansion into Eastern Europe.Even though the United States and Great Britain denounced the communist seizure of power in Czechoslovakia, neither took any direct action. Throughout the years of 1945-1948, there was a poll conducted in the United States(Doc H). Each year, a person was asked a question about their feelings toward the Soviet Union. In 1945, a little more than half of the people voted that yes, they believe Russia could be trusted to cooperate with us after the war. In early 1946, the question was if they thought Russia could cooperate with us in world affairs. Half said no. Later that year, 60% voted hat they saw Russia was trying to build herself up to be the ruling power of the world. In May 1948, almost 70% saw the U. S. as being to soft in its policy toward Russia. The heig htened tensions, suspicions, and fears that became associated with the Cold War can be seen in the dramatic shifts in public opinion. With the Soviet Union now a threat, 10 European nations, Canada, and the U. S. established the North American Treaty Organization (NATO) to resist Soviet aggression in Europe. With the Soviet Union somewhat humiliated by the success of the Berlin airlift, they finally ended the Berlin Blockade.It was a success for the West until tension was again increased when the U. S. S. R. sets off its first atomic bomb. Now that the Soviet Union had successfully developed and conducted nuclear tests, the U. S. monopoly was over. Suspicions and tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union were seen dramatically from 1941 to 1949 in conferences, public announcements, newspaper articles, and even public surveys. Countries as a whole distrusted each other because of their different beliefs. Each side was engaged in hostility that kept the Cold War brooding .
Monday, September 16, 2019
It is somewhat inconceivable that a man often dubbed as the Ã¢â¬Å"second most powerful man in the United States next to the president himselfÃ¢â¬ , was an undergraduate at the Juilliard School, studying the clarinet. A former member of a jazz band and perfectly capable of playing the saxophone, Alan Greenspan is a name known in every American household, where a staggering statistic of 9 out of 10 American adults are acquainted with who Greenspan is, as opposed to knowing who the Vice President of the United States is.Born to a Hungarian Jewish family on March 6, 1926, Alan Greenspan spent his formative years in Washington Heights, New York. Having an aptitude for numbers, Greenspan was the one who was often left with the bands bookkeeping and his natural inclination towards business was what prompted his transition from studying musical arts to studying economics. Thus, enrolling at the New York University on September 1944, he went on to earn two degrees in economics, graduating summa cum laude in 1948 and attaining his MA in 1950.Although he was never able to finish his PhD at Columbia University owing to a lack of a dissertation, he attained it later on at NYU in 1977 without having to make the particular requirement as well as honorary Doctor of Commercial Science on December 14, 2005. Almost 40 years before his appointment as chairman of the Federal Reserve, Alan GreenspanÃ¢â¬â¢s professional career began as an economic analyst at the National Industrial [Insert Last Name 2] Conference Board, where he stayed on from 1947 to 1953.He then proceeded to open, along with William Townsend, Townsend, Greenspan & Company, an economic consulting firm in New York City where he served as the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s president and chairman for a little over 33 years. Having accepted the job as a coordinator on domestic policy under Richard Nixon during the presidential campaign in 1968 and later as the Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers in 1974 to 1977 under Geral d Ford, the company was seen to be dwindling down from success.Successors to the chairmanship of the Federal Reserve that was being vacated by Paul Volcker were being nominated and Alan GreenspanÃ¢â¬â¢s name was among those in mind. Nominated by Ronald Reagan, GreenspanÃ¢â¬â¢s nomination hearing went through on July 21 1987 and confirmed by the Senate on August 11, 1987. He was faced with his first ever crisis; the 1987 stock market rash which was one of the biggest crashes in the history of Wall Street.His period serving at the Fed has allowed him to build credibility and flexibility in affecting the economy, combating recession by lowering the interest rates without so putting so much of a shock on the bond market. Serving as the chairman of the Federal Reserve for four terms under past presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton, Greenspan was nominated by President George Bush to serve his fifth tem on May 18, 2004, an extraordinary feat that has yet to be s urpassed.Among his many awards and titles that he received during his service was the Presidential Medal of Freedom, bestowed upon him by President George W. bush in November 2005, Knight Commander of the British Empire in 2002 and Commander of the Legion of Honor. Having appointed another successor in the person of yet another former chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers to ensure a [Insert Last Name 3] smooth changeover, GreenspanÃ¢â¬â¢s stay as a member of the board officially reached a close on January 31, 2006. Converted from being a logical positivist, he became an advocate of Objectivism due to the influence of Nathaniel Branden.He was introduced to Ayn Rand, the Objectivist author who was to become his mentor and friend, by his first wife, Joan Mitchell. A supporter of RandÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy, Greenspan wrote several literary pieces for the Objectivist newsletters as well as contributions for Capitalism; the Unknown Ideal, RandÃ¢â¬â¢s book published in 1966 among which was an essay supporting the gold standard. A known advocate of laissez faire capitalism, a number of Objectivists find irony in the way that Greenspan supports the gold standard in spite of the Federal Reserve's role in America's fiat money system and endogenous inflation.Harry Binswanger claims that Greenspan falls short of his support of the Objectivist and free market principles as evinced by his publicly expressed opinions and actions while working for the Federal Reserve. Following his retirement from the Federal Reserve, Greenspan has a new company; the Greenspan Associates LLC, working as an advisor, making speeches and offering consulting for other firms. He has written his own memoir, The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World, which was published on September 17, 2007. In it, he tells of his history in the service of the U. S.government as well as issues, present and future, concerning global economy, where he voices out his criticisms of President George Bush , VP Dick Cheney and the Republican-controlled Congress. Having been given his third stint as a private adviser, Greenspan was hired by Paulsen &Co in the middle of January 2008 to get his input on economic issues and monetary policies. As such, he will be advising them on issues the U. S. economy and the world financial markets. [Insert Last Name 4] Works Cited Sheehan, Fred. Ã¢â¬Å"Alan, We Hardly Know YouÃ¢â¬â¢. 20 July 2007. Safehaven. 12 April 2008. < http://www. safehaven. com/article-8006. htm>
Sunday, September 15, 2019
From a young age Charles DodgsonÃ¢â¬â¢s fondness for writing was already made apparent. He had made several contributions to some national publications in England as well as to two local publications in Oxford (Karoline 31). It was in one of his contributions to the latter where he used the pseudonym by which he would be remembered: Lewis Carroll. It took some time before Carroll finally came out with a published version of his manuscript for Alice in Wonderland. Among other things Carroll was also a mathematician and a deacon in his church (Collingwood 22-23).These occupations contributed to the delay in publication of the classic story of Alice. After its release and widespread acclaim however, it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t long before Carroll published its sequel, Through the Looking Glass. The two texts have been popularized as childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literature. However, closer analyses by critics have brought forth a string of explanations accounting for the uncommon descriptions and images in the texts. Regardless of the circumstances surrounding the creation of the stories, it cannot be denied that the same were written for the enjoyment and benefit of children.Controversies Surrounding Alice The zeitgeist during the release of Alice in Wonderland was one of drug abuse resistance and a counter-culture of dependence on psychedelic substances. Such an air led scholars to deconstruct the text based on the prevalent norms in society. It was easy for scholars to relate AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s mushroom-eating and herb-use to regular pot sessions. Some scholars have claimed that the imageries in the story are akin to the hallucinations experienced when under the influence of addictive substances.From these factual circumstances arose the belief that Carroll himself was under the influence at the time that he wrote the text or that he was a habitual user. However, there is no evidence to show that at any point in his life Carroll was involved in drug abuse. There is evidence to support however that Carroll may have been ill thus prompting the hyperbolic descriptions in Alice in Wonderland and its sequel. It was observed that Carroll documented suffering from severe migraines which most often affected the ill person by skewing his or her perspective, such as making objects appear bigger then they actually were (Carroll 52).It is surmised that Lewis Carroll suffered from such an affliction all his life and thus the vivid imagery in his popular texts. The disease has now become popularly known as the Alice in Wonderland Syndrome or, medically, micropsia and macropsia. This is a neurological disease which affects visual perception in humans causing illusions in size, shape and color (Cinibis and Aysun 316). Some scholars have attributed the creativity in CarrollÃ¢â¬â¢s text to the fact that he was ailing from this disease.As regards the text Through the Looking Glass, critics have unanimously categorized the same as nonsense literature. It is not hard to imagine why , what with the textÃ¢â¬â¢s deconstruction of norms and the topsy turvy manner by which the text upends unquestioned customs Ã¢â¬â such as telling time for example. More than anything however, the text is a clear presentation on a play of words and wit. The Real Alice The first and strongest argument that CarrollÃ¢â¬â¢s stories were written simply for children to enjoy is an inspection of the life of Carroll. It has already been mentioned that Carroll was a deacon in his church.This paved the way to his acquaintance with a little girl who sparked the creation of his childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s masterpiece. In her text, The Real Alice, Clarks shows that sometime in 1855 Carroll met the Liddell family whose head, Henry Liddell, was the dean of Christ Church in Oxford. Because of his acquaintance with Henry Liddell, Carroll in turn became acquainted with HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s children. Alice Liddell was one of three girls belonging to the Liddell family. Carroll was quite fond of children and he often took the Liddell children to picnics and boat rides where he regaled the children with stories and make-believes.It was on one such occasion that Alice asked Carroll to tell them a story and the ensuing tale is what is known today as Alice in Wonderland. Although Carroll had told the children other stories prior to this particular one, the difference this time was that Alice Liddell had asked him to write down the story for her. Several pieces of evidence show that indeed Alice Liddell was the model, or at least the inspiration, for CarrollÃ¢â¬â¢s Alice. One of the strongest proofs is that Carroll actually dedicated the book to Alice Liddell thus demonstrating that Alice played a part in its completion.If it were merely a sign of the close relationship that he shared with the Liddell children, then Carroll should have dedicated the book to all of them and not just to one in particular. Moreover, a poem in Through the Looking Glass reveals an acrostic spelling out the name o f Alice Pleasance Liddell. Although Carroll himself admitted using acrostics to spell out the names of young ladies with whom he was acquainted, the appearance of Alice LiddellÃ¢â¬â¢s name in both his books is quite significant.No other acquaintance of his was mentioned in both Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass. Certainly it was more than just the similarity in names of his friend and his protagonist that prompted him to spell out AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s name in the sequel of his story. There is also evidence showing that Carroll set the story on dates significant to Alice Liddell. The first story was set on May 4, AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s birthday, and the second story was set on November 4, AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s half-birthday (Wikipedia Alice Liddell). Carroll certainly went out of his way to allude to such significant dates in both his stories.Furthermore, when the fictional Alice stated her age it reflected the actual age Alice Liddell would have been at that time. Certainly that too co uld not have been mere coincidence. Although Carroll denied any association between his writings and Alice Liddell, the subtle hints that he planted in the story speak for themselves. A possible cause for the denial might have been the intrigue that eventually followed his intimate relationships with children. Karoline Leach first raised such a point in her book, In the Shadow of a Dreamchild, when she attempted to deconstruct the Carroll Myth.In essence, Leach insinuated pedophilia by observing that the relationship Carroll maintained with young girls was unnatural. Of course, with the stature and popularity that Carroll had attained, such statements, though founded with as much proof as other accepted historical facts regarding Carroll, were hotly contested and rebutted. This is not to say however that they have been debunked as such is not the case. Regardless of the relationship between Alice Liddell and Carroll, it is uncontested that the first book was dedicated to Alice Lidde ll while she was still a young child.Above any other proof of motivation, this clear manifestation of intent reflects that the story of Alice in Wonderland was written for the fancies of children. It necessarily follows therefore that its sequel also catered to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s delights. A Journey into Wonderland Apart from the biographical setting, one may also look at the fictional setting which Carroll developed. The story starts out with a random romp in the woods with a little girlÃ¢â¬â¢s closest companion, her pet. It is a dull day and, upon falling into the rabbit hole, Alice finds herself in a refreshing change of scenery.The situation is not unlike the many dull summerÃ¢â¬â¢s days wherein children are wont to play make-believe. Wonderland itself is a crayon enlargement of pictures that are commonly drawn by children. The different colored trees and stark colors worn by the characters, both on their clothes and on their furs, shows a childÃ¢â¬â¢s easy use of colors. T he scenery in itself has a nursery rhyme quality around it reflecting the target audience it was written for. The contrast in colors is very much the same manner by which children view the world.It is only the adult-world that defines colors by hues of black, gray, and khaki. Such a variety of colors as is seen in AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s adventures is the world of young children. The mere fact that children often like to reverse colors in their portrayals of the world around them shows that they enjoy such mismatches. This only serves to reveal the delight they must have felt to have been launched alongside Alice into a world filled with mixtures of colors. Furthermore, the skewed perception of size of objects was entirely in line with the perspective of small children.For children, size is magnified in proportion with their own size. More so, size is magnified in proportion to their understanding of the utility of a particular object. Take for example the larger-than-life portrayal of the c hess board pieces. The game of chess is a game of knowledge and of skill. It is not unlikely therefore that a child would find such a game taxing, particularly so when he or she is free to enjoy the free terrain of nature. Another such example is found in the upturning of the concept of time telling in the story.One of the most difficult things to teach a child is how to tell time. The importance of the long hand, the short hand, and the second hand are sheer mysteries to a child who needs only to keep track whether or not it is night or day outside. The mockery of timepieces in the story is entirely in line with such difficulty. The concept may be refreshing to adult readers but it also allows child readers to completely relate with the story. Apart from the setting, CarrollÃ¢â¬â¢s use of characters already familiar to children showed that the story was indeed intended for them.The characters Tweedledee and Tweedledum for example, jump right out of the nursery rhyme to meet Alice in her adventure. This is very significant because to no other audience would these two characters hold strong bearing than to children. The language used in the story is also reflective of the genre for which the texts were intended. To most the language is mere nonsense. But the play of words, particularly in Through the Looking Glass, presents so much more than just play. The manner in which Carroll communicates his feelings with non-words is reflective of the way children themselves attempt to express themselves to adults.For example, in the poem Jabberwocky, Carroll uses the combination of words and the emotions evoked by non-words to paint out a story for his audience. Such mixture of words to express a new feeling or thought is most often observed in children who, for lack of vocabulary, resort to such splicing when the need arises. Furthermore, children often take meaning from the feelings that a particular word arouses in them, particularly so when they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know t he meaning of the word. The use of language in the two stories is a play on such psychology of children.Finally, the variety of sounds that Carroll brings to life in his stories presents good exercise for childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s linguistic abilities. The spectrum of sounds that his stories present is good training ground for improved diction and muscle memory for his young readers. Finally, let us examine Alice herself. AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s disposition is that of an obedient young girl who is both shocked and amused by the play of the characters she meets. Alice presents the character of a child who has learned to believe the teachings of her elders without fully understanding why she should do so.This very character of Alice persists from her falling into the rabbit hole to her arguing against the disruption of norms. Yet every time that Alice is forced to explain her stands, she finds herself running out of thoughts and words. Such blind obedience is common in children, particularly those sta rting education but not yet fully being taught about the concepts behind the lessons being learned. It is argued that AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s adventures had a darker undertone to it, with Alice finding each of her hopes being crushed throughout the story.However, such an observation does not discount the fact that AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s story still holds for the benefit of child readers. If nothing more, such an undertone elevates AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s story to apply even to young adults. It seems that AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s realization that her fantasies and dreams are not always in line with reality and therefore must be discarded shows a coming of age theme in the story. As with most coming of age stories, it is not uncommon that adults themselves find the issues they face being addressed.However, the benefit that children may derive from the story is not undermined because the issues portrayed are particularly addressed to the ones that they themselves face. A ChildÃ¢â¬â¢s Wonderland Scholars have applied th e themes present in the stories to everyday life of more mature audiences. Moreover, numerous criticisms have been aimed at CarrollÃ¢â¬â¢s stories reflecting them to be no more than the products of a hallucinating mind. Despite these judgments regarding the source of the idea of Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass, it cannot be denied that both pieces have had a tremendous impact on its young readers.There is no doubt that these stories were created primarily for the enjoyment of children and for their beneficial understanding. This intention is the focal key in understanding the disjointed world that Lewis Carroll painted. To most adults and to the scholarly world, an in-depth analysis of the text was needed, particularly so when considering the intellect and the capacity of the man who rendered the same. But it is undeniable that the very reason why AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s Adventures are still loved today is borne of a deep affiliation between children and Alice herself.Car rollÃ¢â¬â¢s depiction of Alice and her Wonderland embodies the make-believe world that children often find themselves voiceless to express. In his masterpiece, Carroll is not only able to express the world of a child but he is able to impact the viewpoints of adults as well. Works Cited Alice Liddell. Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. April 2008. 16 April 2008 . Carroll, Lewis. The Diaries of Lewis Carroll. London: The Lewis Carroll Society, 1993-2007. Carroll, Lewis. The Complete, Fully Illustrated Works.New York: Gramercy Books, 1995. Cinibis, M. , and Aysun, S. Ã¢â¬Å"Alice in Wonderland syndrome as an initial manifestation of Epstein-Barr virus infection. Ã¢â¬ British Journal of Ophthalmology, 76, 316, 1992. Clark, Anne. The Real Alice. New York: Stein And Day, 1982. Cohen, Morton N. Lewis Carroll: A Biography. London: Macmillan, 1995. Collingwood, Stuart D. The Life and Letters of Lewis Carroll. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1898. Leach, Karoline. In the Shadow of the Dreamchild : A New Understanding of Lewis Carroll. London: Peter Owen Publishers, 1999.