Friday, May 31, 2019

A Closer Look at Lucy: Sexual Dimorphism and Speciation in Australopit

A Closer Look at Lucy Sexual Dimorphism and Speciation in AustralopithecusIn his peer-reviewed article, Sexing fossils a boy named Lucy?, James Shreeve discusses, in detail, a study on sexual dimorphism and possible speciation in Australopithecines in Hadar, Ethiopia, based on the famous A. afarensis specimen, Lucy. In the article, Lucys kind takes humanlike turn, the author addresses sexual dimorphism and speculates on sex-based disagreeences in behaviors in A. afarensis. The two articles have differences and commonalities with each other in content and both innovate research methods and conclusions on topics including sexual dimorphism, sex-based behaviors, and speciation in Australopithecines, which receive critical analysis. A study performed by Martin Hausler and Peter Schmid of the University of Zurich, Switzerland, appeared in the October 1995 issue of Journal of Human Evolution, igniting list over the 1974 Australopithecus discoveries in Hadar, Ethiopia. The most famous o f the Hadar specimens is the 3-million-year-old skeleton, Lucy, who was recovered by paleoanthropologist, Donald Johanson. In his article, Shreeve presents the methods and findings of Hausler and Schmids study as well as some answer arguments from other scientists in the field. Hausler and Schmid suggest that speciation exists within the Hadar Australopithecines that the specimens represent not just one species (afarensis), but two. To support their view, the scientists use calculations showing the sexual dimorphism (the presence of characteristics that differ between male and female members) among Australopithecines. Again, by studying sexual dimorphic traits, the scientists claim that Lucy is possibly male, not fema... ...Sexing fossils a boy named Lucy?, a peer-reviewed article by James Shreeve, and the article Lucys kind takes humanlike turn address subjects including sexual dimorphism, sex-based behaviors, and speciation of Australopithecines. While the two articles differ i n the research and findings presented, they share a main, significant conclusion about Australopithecines, which is the sexual dimorphism in body size. Male A. afarensis are evidently larger than females, although there is some disagreement as to how a good deal larger (the degree of sexual dimorphism). Works CitedB.B. (2003). Lucys kind takes humanlike turn. Science News, 164, 3, p45(1). Retrieved April 5, 2004 from Infotrac Onefile database. Shreeve, James. (1995). Sexing fossils a boy named Lucy? Science, 270, 5240, p1297(2). Retrieved April 5, 2004 from Infotrac Onefile database.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Indias Economic Success :: essays research papers

Indias Economic SuccessIn any region of the world there are culture and affectionate differences that setcountries apart. Each with an economic, social and political outlooks on thefuture that determine the way people live. These endless arrays, even occur indifferent parts of a particular of every country including one of the worldsmost diverse, India.India is separated into 25 states and 7 territories which create 16 majorlanguages and 1,000 minor languages and dialects. This diversity in languagecreates somewhat of a barrier for India to become one of the foremost leaders inworld because of the lack of unity. Although, in the past, the India governmenthas taken steps to correct this matter with promoting Hindoo as the nationallanguage. save, Indians who cannot speak Hindi frowned upon this notion.They believed the best jobs would go to Indians who spoke Hindi and with theirpride of their regional languages kept them from accepting this unity, thusgovernment unyielding agains t this idea. Now, the India government recognizes 13regional languages as official languages. Children in schools learn Hindi astheir second language, with English being used primary in higher education.Education has become the most recognizable forms of advancing ones country,India has exploded in schools and enrollment in these schools. As we can see by pageboy 2, both charts, the difference in a little more then 10 years isconsiderable. Both school enrollment and the number of educational institutions pick up increased by an average of 63%, however do not get fooled by these numbers.The Indians school system are extremely overcrowded and many children scratch off outto get a job to help support their families.This problem with Indias educational system falls in two parts, the first beingthat children who do drop out to find a job, is part of the social problem thatIndia has been trying to correct. The Indian government started this quest toeliminate child labor in 1986 with a wh ole section in the United Nationsconvention on the Rights of the Child. Additionally, in 1986 they passed theChild Labor Act that intended to ban the employment of children in occupationsthat are considered hazardous and to regulate conditions of work for childrenemployed in occupations where child labor is not actually banned. However, aswe can see by the summer-blooming of this act it does not make the necessary changes tothe social conditions in which children have to work to ensure that the familyhas money.The second problem with the educational system in India is the overcrowding.However this occurrence has more to do with the situation of population

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Comparing Sophocles Antigone and Jean Anouilhs Antigone Essay

Both Sophocles and Jean Anouilh use the simple story-line of a girl defying her uncle and king in the face of death to reflect upon the events and attitudes of their days. Sophocles Antigone models the Hellenic pattern of tragedy by incorporating key elements such as a tragic hero with a fatal flaw and the Man-God-Society triangle. Creon is the tragic hero who disturbs the inwrought harmony of Thebes by denying Polyneices a funeral. Antigone is the catalyst who forces him to reckon with the consequences of his pride and arrogance. In the twentieth century, Jean Anouilh takes Sophocles drama, strips it down to its core, and weaves an entirely different version of the story. Anouilh redefines tragedy by removing the conventional tragic hero, the Man-God-Society triangle and the black-and-white distinctions within the story. He creates a heroine with human faults and emotions, whom society can both embrace and emulate, in order to pink the Vichy collaboration with Nazi Germany during WWII.Sophocles, following the Greek standard of tragedy, casts Creon as the tragic hero plagued by his own pride, inflexibility and power. Creon believes his authority to be twofold, both as the king and as the head of his family. He claims that the throne is the source of any power, saying ?whoever is chosen to govern should be obeyed ? must be obeyed, in all things, great and small, just and unjust? (Sophocles 217), and he demands the utmost allegiance from his son, bidding him to ?subordinate everything else?to his father?s will? (Sophocles 216). Creon is filled with hubris, and he rejects any root word that might compromise his image. For instance, when the guards escort Antigone to the palace, he demands of the Choragos, ?Who is the man... ... as a framework to convey his points. Furthermore, Anouilh changes an extremely well known play. When this happens, humanity tends to see only the differences amidst the works. And the differences (such as the changes in Antigone?s an d Creon?s characters, the gray area between right and wrong, and politics and duty as motivating forces) convey his real political message criticism of the Vichy regime.Works CitedAnouilh, Jean.?Antigone.? Trans. Lewis Galantire. Jean Anouilh Five Plays. New York Hill and Wang, 1986. 1-53.CNN World News. French Catholics Apologize for World War II Silence on Jews. Web. 21 May 2015Jean Anouilh Quotations. Web. 21 May 2015Sophocles. Antigone Dover Thrift Editions New York Dover Publications, Inc. 1993

Exploring Dyslexia and its Implications Essay -- Exploratory Essays Re

Exploring Dyslexia and its Implications IntroductionImagine yourself in a crowded room. You are sitting at a table with other stack your age, reading a nurse discover loud, and it is your turn. You look up at the other people, terrified because nothing is coming issue of your mouth. You lavt manage to force even one word out because you dont know how to read. Now, imagine yourself as a teenager. This is what it was like for quartetteteen-year-old Anita, a dyslexic. Life was horrible for her. She verbalize that Dyslexia makes you an outcast, and people think you are dumb...Its like racism people are just prejudiced (McConville, 2000). Feeling useless, she got herself into a lot of trouble drinking, smoking and 2 attempts of suicide. Dyslexia seems like such a minimal disorder, but what is it really, what causes it, and how can it be treated?What is dyslexia?Dyslexia is a reading disorder. It is something that affects not only the readers life, but also the lives of everyone wel l-nigh him or her. It is a very random curb, but it is four times more common in males than in females. The race, culture, and society are not considered when dyslexia decides who it willing attack, but when it does, it causes symptoms that differ from difficulty in spelling to overlook of self confidence and difficulty in pronunciation to a bad short-term retention (Bee, 2000).There are many theories of how dyslexia is caused. One is that it is inherited. Another is the neglect of certain nutrients obtained by eating some foods. Whatever the cause, it is still a serious condition that needs to be treated.SymptomsIf someone was to have dyslexia, how would it be accept? Here are some common characteristics of dyslexia.1. There are no hearin... ...f the research in the causes and many treatments of dyslexia. ReferencesBee, P. (2000, June 27). Early warning system to detect dyslexia. The measure (London). pylons, and yet another miracle cure for dyslexia. The Guardian (London), pp. 15.Connor, S. (2002, January 4). Cause of dyslexia narrowed down to single chromosome. The supreme (London), pp. 5.Ellis, R. (2002, January 21). Lessons leart sic in treating dyslexia. Courier Mail, pp. 6.Fraser, L. (2001, April 15). Fish oils help to improve dyslexics concentration. Sunday Telegraph, pp. 10.Hagin, R. & Silver, A. A. Dyslexia. Colliers Encyclopedia. 1993Kaluger, G. & Kolson, C. J. (1978). schooling and learning disabilities. Ohio, Bell and Howell Company.McConville, B. (2000, March 21). Hope for dyslexics. The Times (London).(1999, September 11). Dyslexia gene. The Lancet. Exploring Dyslexia and its Implications Essay -- Exploratory Essays ReExploring Dyslexia and its Implications IntroductionImagine yourself in a crowded room. You are sitting at a table with other people your age, reading a book out loud, and it is your turn. You look up at the other people, terrified because nothing is coming out of your mouth. You cant manage to force even one word out because you dont know how to read. Now, imagine yourself as a teenager. This is what it was like for fourteen-year-old Anita, a dyslexic. Life was horrible for her. She said that Dyslexia makes you an outcast, and people think you are dumb...Its like racism people are just prejudiced (McConville, 2000). Feeling useless, she got herself into a lot of trouble drinking, smoking and two attempts of suicide. Dyslexia seems like such a minimal disorder, but what is it really, what causes it, and how can it be treated?What is dyslexia?Dyslexia is a reading disorder. It is something that affects not only the readers life, but also the lives of everyone around him or her. It is a very random condition, but it is four times more common in males than in females. The race, culture, and society are not considered when dyslexia decides who it will attack, but when it does, it causes symptoms that differ from difficulty in spelling to lack of self confidence and difficulty in pronunci ation to a bad short-term memory (Bee, 2000).There are many theories of how dyslexia is caused. One is that it is inherited. Another is the lack of certain nutrients obtained by eating some foods. Whatever the cause, it is still a serious condition that needs to be treated.SymptomsIf someone was to have dyslexia, how would it be recognized? Here are some common characteristics of dyslexia.1. There are no hearin... ...f the research in the causes and many treatments of dyslexia. ReferencesBee, P. (2000, June 27). Early warning system to detect dyslexia. The Times (London). pylons, and yet another miracle cure for dyslexia. The Guardian (London), pp. 15.Connor, S. (2002, January 4). Cause of dyslexia narrowed down to single chromosome. The Independent (London), pp. 5.Ellis, R. (2002, January 21). Lessons leart sic in treating dyslexia. Courier Mail, pp. 6.Fraser, L. (2001, April 15). Fish oils help to improve dyslexics concentration. Sunday Telegraph, pp. 10.Hagin, R. & Silver, A. A. Dyslexia. Colliers Encyclopedia. 1993Kaluger, G. & Kolson, C. J. (1978). Reading and learning disabilities. Ohio, Bell and Howell Company.McConville, B. (2000, March 21). Hope for dyslexics. The Times (London).(1999, September 11). Dyslexia gene. The Lancet.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

a farewell to arms Essay -- essays research papers

A authors job is to tell the truth Ernest Hemingway. This quote means that it is a writers job to convey some sort of truth or accuracy to the reader. I agree. This is shown in the novel, A parting to Arms, by Ernest Hemingway through the situate and characterization in the novel. It is also shown in the novel, To Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper Lee through the themes and setting of the novel.In the war novel, A Farewell to Arms, Ernest Hemingway demonstrates that it is a writers job to convey some sort of truth to the reader through the setting of the novel. This novel takes place during a clipping of war and shows what war is like, realistically. For a war novel, there is not a lot of fighting but instead more of getting from one place to another and the situations that occur in the interim. This portrays a truth to the reader because it shows how war is in reality and that it is not all death and destruction. Hemingway expresses the emotions of the characters accurately for t ime of war and conditions or situations the characters are put into. The author shows us the characters interact with each other and how they deal with the war surrounding them. For example, in Book III of the novel, the priest says that people that summer finally realized the war and that people were gentler because they had been beaten. This, truthfully, shows how war affects people and their emotions because it shows how they are disappointed. Through the setting of...

a farewell to arms Essay -- essays research papers

A writers job is to tell the truth Ernest Hemingway. This advert means that it is a writers job to convey some sort of truth or accuracy to the reader. I agree. This is shown in the saucy, A part to Arms, by Ernest Hemingway through the setting and characterization in the novel. It is also shown in the novel, To Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper Lee through the themes and setting of the novel.In the war novel, A Farewell to Arms, Ernest Hemingway demonstrates that it is a writers job to convey some sort of truth to the reader through the setting of the novel. This novel takes place during a time of war and shows what war is like, realistically. For a war novel, there is not a lot of fighting but instead much of getting from one place to another and the situations that occur in the interim. This portrays a truth to the reader because it shows how war is in reality and that it is not all cobblers last and destruction. Hemingway expresses the emotions of the characters accurately for time of war and conditions or situations the characters are put into. The author shows us the characters interact with each other and how they deal with the war surrounding them. For example, in Book III of the novel, the priest says that people that summer finally realized the war and that people were gentler because they had been beaten. This, truthfully, shows how war affects people and their emotions because it shows how they are disappointed. Through the setting of...

Monday, May 27, 2019

Embracing Readymades and the Notion of Living Forever Essay

It is a shared combination of works that is displayed throughout the m pulmonary tuberculosisum, setting up conversation between the museums exhibition and Hirsts contemporary art pieces. The relationship and connection between the works will give visitors a dialogue between the different works, engaging them in a conversation of art and science between the past, present and future.Hirst, one of the most celebrated contemporary artists, whose works propose a personal interpretation of past works, find their insight in science and their basis in art history. Relationships with life and death are being examined, and questions dealth to our cultural, artistic and philosophical ideals. * whole kit and caboodle of Damien Hirst mirrored Marcel Duchamps idea of the readymade, that the concept is much more important than the outcome of the work itself, and that ordinary objects/subjects could be taken from everyday use and be used for art. Although Hirsts works explores the themes of life and death, pathology and science, with the help of readymade objects, his works arouse a sense of spiritual enlightenment in the spectator, along with the whimsicality of living forever, which compliments with the centenary of the museum. * With that, I will firstly talk about the idea of the readymades, and how it is being used in the works that is being exhibited in Cornucopia. Next, I will be analyzing them, discussing the potential meaning behind the readymades to my proposed theme of spirituality and the idea of living forever.Koons seduces and persuades the spectators with such works, and desire will ultimately be gone once the spectators looks at themselves and realize that they are desire itself.* * CONCLUSION *The use of readymades to promote or provoke an idea, a thought, is what Damien Hirst seeks out to achieve in the exhibition, Cornucopia. As it was held in accordance to the Oceanographic Museums 100th anniversary, Hirsts artworks seek out to question its visitors, w hat has changed and what remained. Only by constant questioning will we better and move forward.A sense of spiritual attainment and the idea of living forever can be felt whne looking at Hirsts works, it evades duration and seems to be stuck in limbo, allowing us to reflect on ourselves and our morality. As I have compared, the works of artist Jeff Koons also seeks to enlighten the viewers with his version of the readymades. Readymades is an nice way to provoke thinking and spreading message as everyday objects are familiar to the general consensus and people could relate better to them, rather then traditional symbols of art.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Liberal Arts Essay

An education conducted in a spirit of free inquiry undertaken with step forward concern for topical relevance or vocational utility. This kind of accomplishment is not only one of the enrichments of existence it is one of the achievements of civilization. It heightens students aw areness of the human and natural worlds they inhabit. It makes them more(prenominal) reflective about(predicate) their beliefs and choices, more self-conscious and criticising, intercommunicateing, critical and ordered entailing. Law schools report that by the yardsticks of law review and grades, their top students come from math, classics, and literature, with political science, economics, pre-law and legal studies ranking lower. In todays fast evolving world, leadinghip across the spectrum of vocations and professions need a broad imaginative and critical capacity, not a prematurely narrow point of view. In terms of the actual world, a solid liberal humanities and sciences education will generally prove the near practical preparation for many demanding, high-level careers, or for the several careers that an increase number of adults will eventually pursue.No particular concentration or area of study is inherently a better ticket to security, leadership, or in-person satisfaction than another. Students should be encouraged to follow their passions and interests, not what they guess (or what others tell them) will lead to a supposedly more marketable set of skills. Of hightail it, high education has a utilitarian function. In that regard, as Robert Bellah states, it possesses its own legitimacy. Yet, it is crucial to combine and integrate that function with other aims and ends, with what Bellah calls education for the development of character, citizenship, and culture. A ample system of higher education offers many rewards scientific discoveries, eventual and even unforeseen applications, thoughtful political leadership, intelligent public discourse, cultural vitality, an d an educated workforce. high learning serves several goals in coordination, goals that are mutually reinforcing.The aims are at once personal and social, private and public, economic, ethical, and intellectual. Harvard College exists to serve all these goals and offers a broad forces of concentrations and courses for the purpose of educating the whole individual. Why? Beca example that kind of education, and not one aimed at certain occupational targets, is, in the long run, the best preparation for advanced achievement. The rattling broad, capacious take shape of education that we call the liberal arts is rooted in a specific curriculum in classical and medieval convictions. exclusively it would be wrong to assume that because it has such ancient roots, this kind of education is outdated, stale, fusty, or irrelevant. In fact, quite the contrary. A liberal-arts education, which Louis Menand defined in The Marketplace of Ideas as a background mentality, a mien of thinking, a kind of intellectual DNA that informs work in every specialized area of inquiry, lends itself particularly tumefy to contemporary high-tech methods of imparting knowledge. We all wrestle with the challenges of educating students who are used to multitasking, doing their homework while listening to melody and texting on their iPhones. For such students, the Web-based facilities of exciting liberal-arts courses are particularly salient.What would Aristotle or Erasmus or Robert Maynard Hutchins not confine given for a technique that allows one to tour the worlds greatest museums, looking closely at the details of countless masterpieces explore the ruins of ancient castles and pyramids and forums join archaeological digs at your desk, turning objects around to see all sides of them visualize problems in geometry or astronomy or mathematics in several dimensions and work out their solutions. An excellent example of the power of multimedia coupled with the liberal arts is Imaginary Jo urneys, a general-education course some(a)times taught at Harvard University by Stephen Greenblatt. The course is described as being about global mobility, encounter, and exchange at the time that Harvard College was founded in 1636. Using the interactive resources of computer technology, we follow imaginary voyages of three ships that leave England in 1633.Sites include Londons Globe Theatre, Benin, Barbados, Brazil, Mexico. With this kind of course in mind, it seems that the liberal arts could al intimately move over been designed for sophisticated online learning, so far from being stale or fusty are these ship targetal of knowing. This kind of education has become more and more appealing to students and teachers at universities around the world. Donald Markwell, the warden of Oxfords Rhodes House, recently gave a series of lectures in Canada entitled The imply for Breadth. He referred to a surge of interest in liberal education in many other countries. He cites a major addres s in London by Yales Richard Levin in which Levin noted that Asian leaders are increasingly attracted to the American model of undergraduate curriculum, specifically because of the two historic period of breadth and depth in different disciplines provided before a student chooses an area of concentration or embarks on professional training. Levin described liberal-arts discovers programs at capital of Red China University, South Koreas Yonsei University, and the National University of Singapore he also referred to liberal-arts curricula at Fudan University, Nanjing University, and the University of Hong Kong.Yet, as we know, the trends in the United States are in the opposite direction, and this is not moreover a recent problem. Menand cites evidence that in the United States, the proportion of undergraduate degrees awarded annually in the liberal arts and sciences has been declining for a hundred years, apart from a brief rise between 1955 and 1970, which was a period of rapidly increasing enrollments and national economic growth. Thus, paradoxically, as a liberal-arts education becomes more appealing to leaders and families in Asia and elsewhere in the world, it is losing ground in our own country. At least three factors are at work in this decline a) the earth of increasingly specialized disciplines, and the rewards for faculty members for advancing knowledge in those areas b) the economic premium that is thought to reside in a highly technical form of preparation for careers and c) a growing focus on graduate education from the early 20th century to the present day. These developments have clearly not been unspoilt for American undergraduate education.Liberal education in crisis is a tiresomely familiar theme, and countless commissions, reports, and study groups have attempted to address it. I am under no illusions that I have the magic key to resolve a problem that has stumped so many brilliant educators. But these are not just theoretical quandaries , they are the issues we confront almost every day How do we defend liberal education against the skepticsparents, potential students, the media, the marketplace, even some trustees and students? The first, most practical defense is that the liberal arts (and sciences) are the best possible preparation for success in the learned professionslaw, medicine, teachingas well as in the less traditionally learned but increasingly arcane professions of business, finance, and high-tech innovation. So my first defense of liberal learning is what you are taught and the way you learn it the materials a doctor or financial analyst or physicist or humanist needs to know, but taught in a liberally construed fashion, so that you look at the subject from many different dimensions and incorporate the material into your own thinking in ways that will be much more likely to stay with you, and help you later on.This way of learning has several distinct advantages Its insurance against obsolescence in an y rapidly changing orbit (and every field is changing rapidly these days), if you only focus on learning specific materials that are pertinent in 2012, rather than learning about them in a broader context, you will soon find that your training will have become valueless. Most important, with a liberal education you will have learned how to learn, so that you will be able to do research to answer questions in your field that will come up years from now, questions that zippo could even have envisioned in 2012, much less taught you how to answer. The second, slightly less utilitarian defence of a liberal-arts education is that it hones the mind, teaching focus, critical thinking, and the cogency to express oneself clearly twain in writing and speakingskills that are of great value no matter what profession you may choose. Its not just that you are taught specific materials in a liberally designed context, but more generally, the way your mind is shaped, the habits of thought that y ou develop.These skills were well described by a former dean of the Harvard Law School, Erwin Griswold, cited in a recent speech by the current dean, Martha Minow. Griswold was discussing an ideal vision of the law school, but his arguments adjoin a liberal education wherever it is provided You go to a great school not so much for knowledge as for arts or habits for the art of expression, for the art of entering quickly into another persons thoughts, for the art of assuming at a moments notice a new intellectual position, for the habit of submitting to c project and refutation, for the art of indicating assent or dissent in graduated terms, for the habit of regarding minute points of accuracy, for the art of working out what is possible in a given time for orientation, for discrimination, for mental courage, and mental soberness. My third argument is that a liberal-arts education is the best education for citizenship in a democracy like ours. In her book, Not for Profit, Martha Nu ssbaum points out that from the early years of our republic educators and leaders have connected the liberal arts to the preparation of informed, independent, and sympathetic citizens.Nussbaum argues that democracies need complete citizens who can think for themselves, criticize tradition, and understand the significance of another persons sufferings and achievements. Among the skills a liberal-arts education fosters, she notes, are the ability to think about the good of the nation as a whole, not just that of ones local group, and to see ones own nation, in turn, as part of a complicated world order. At a time when democracy is struggling to be born in countries around the world, and countries that have long enjoyed democracy are struggling to sustain it against pressures of multiple varieties, this may be the best of all the arguments for a liberal-arts education. My fourth argument I accept from Michel de Montaigne, who thought of his own mind as a kind of tower library to whi ch he could retreat even when he was far from home, filled with quotations from intelligent people and experimental thoughts and jokes and anecdotes, where he could keep company with himself. In his essay Of Solitude, he suggested that we all have such back rooms in our minds.The most valuable and attractive people we know are those who have rich and fascinating intellectual furniture in those spaces rather than a void between their ears. Virginia Woolf used a different spatial image to make a similar point in her book Three Guineas, when she talked about the importance of cultivating taste and the knowledge of the arts and literature and music. She argues that people who are so caught up in their professions or business that they never have time to listen to music or look at pictures lose the sense of sight, the sense of sound, the sense of proportion. And she break ups What then remains of a human being who has lost sight, and sound, and a sense of proportion? Only a cripple in a cave. So my fourth argument for a liberal-arts education is that it allows you to furnish the back room of your mind, preparing you for both society and solitude. My final argument is that the liberal arts admit you to a community of scholars, both professional and amateur, spanning the ages. Here I would quote one of my predecessors at Wellesley, Alice Freeman (later Alice Freeman Palmer).When she presided over Wellesley in the last part of the 19th century, it was quite unusual for girls to go to college (as indeed it still is today in some parts of the world). In a speech she gave to answer the repeated question she got from girls and their families, Why Go to College? she said We go to college to know, assured that knowledge is sweet and powerful, that a good education emancipates the mind and makes us citizens of the world. The sweet and powerful knowledge imparted by a liberal-arts education is specifically designed to fulfill this promise. But how can college presidents to day best go about making the fact for the liberal arts? First and most obvious, they should use the bully pulpit of the college presidency purposely and effectivelyat convocations, commencements, groundbreakings for new buildings, in speeches to the local Rotary Club or the state 4-H club convention, and addresses to alumni clubs.This is a truly precious opportunity that few other leaders have, to address the community in situations where there is likely to be respectful attention to their message, at least for a while They should use the opportunity with zest The second way is by using their fund-raising skills and obligations to raise money for exciting programs like Greenblatts Imaginary Journeys. They can make this case effectively to foundations and generous alumni who remember their own liberal-arts education fondly, and thus enhance the resources available for this purpose. Presidents can demonstrate their support of the liberal arts in how they honor faculty members. With t he teaching awards and other distinctions their colleges offer, they should single out for praise and support those who have been most effective in advancing the liberal-arts mission.And then they can ensure that these awards and recognitions are appropriately highlighted in college publications and in messages to parents and prospective students. And perhaps the most effective way presidents can use their leadership to offer support is to speak from a liberal-arts perspective in their own discourse, both formal and informal, by citing examples of fine literature, drawing on instances from history, referring to the arts, and describing learning in the sciences in liberal terms. empty talk was one of the original artes liberales, and it can still be one of the most transformative. Taking my own advice about larding language with liberal learning, I will conclude with a poem by Imam Al-Shafii, which I discovered in a brochure on a recent visit to the Georgetown University School of orthogonal Service, in Doha, Qatar According to the measure of hardship are heights achieved,And he who seeks loftiness must keep vigil by nightAs for he who wants heights without toil,He wastes his life seeking the impossibleSo seek nobility now, then sleep once more (finally),He who seeks pearls must descend into the sea.As this poem reminds us, a liberal-arts education is not always easy it involves paying close attention, taking risks, exploring uncharted territory, diving into the sea. But despite these challenges, the enigmatical rewards of a liberal education are surely worth our best efforts on its behalf.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

How Government Intervention Affects People and the Economy

New portion When Franklin Delano Roosevelt was inaugurated president, he promised a New turn over for the American people who had been suffering under the Great Depression. It is common sense, Roosevelt said, to take a method and try it. If it fails, admit it frankly and try another, but supra whole, try something. The relief, recovery, and reform programs of the New Deal were Roosevelts attempt to try something. Some of the programs were unsuccessful, but others are still in place now.Examining the New Deal programs can help atomic number 53 understand how government intervention affects people and the economy. Franklin Delano Roosevelt has long tons of ideas that he thought would benefit every unrivalled and possibly take us come on of the depression. Not everyone agreed with his ideas and supported him but his ideas did help extremely. Roosevelt made the federal deposit insurance corporation and polite works administration for the first overbold deal and then the social security act and the Fair labor standards act in the second new deal that was later to come.Although there were some(prenominal) more acts and things that he did to get American back to normal, these four I believe made a huge change and are still utilise today in our everyday life. The federal deposit insurance corporation was basically insurance for banks up to 100,000 dollars During the depression banks were starting to close down because they were loan money out before the depression that they did really have, so when everything went wrong and everyone decided to get their money out of the bank the banks didnt have all the money that the people believed was rightfully theirsRoosevelt made sure that wouldnt happen again by giving the banks insurance. Another part of the new deal was the civil works administration, which employed thousands of public workers. Now that the depression was happening tons of people didnt have jobs, no one had money and no one knew what to do next. R oosevelt decided to give these people jobs not only to benefit those people it can also benefit the community That was only part one of the new deal. The social security act was thought about and passed and is still used todayBasically gave funds to disabled workers, elderly, widows and children. Which helped out a nap for the people that just didnt have it. Last but not lease there was and the Fair labor standards act. Which set minimum wage at 40 cents an hour and a minimum amount of work hours, which was 40 hours a week, also banned child labor. All of these deals helped American a ton and still do today. Everything started to get on track after a little. Without Roosevelts ideas America would be a total different place today He made changes that we needed and still do.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Leadership reflection Essay

When I speculate about leading, I never realized how grand it is to critically analyze and reflect on how true or authentic you are as a leader. When I think of myself in a leadershiphip position, at that moment I do not critically analyze how I am performing as a leader. I am caught up in my own world worrying about how people portray me as, are they willing to follow my lead? Am I appropriately refined for the occasion? or just simply do they like me? I think these are the worries and insecurities that get in the way of me analyzing my true leadership skills. there are also several insecurities that get in the way of me engaging in true, authentic self reflection. One of my major fear/roadblock is try to be a person I am not in other words not being true to myself. Trying to live up to an expectation, whether around family or friends, there is a certain pressure or a legacy you are trying to keep that gets in the way of sincerely reflecting. It doesnt matter if you have fail ed or not, its that constant reminder or you are trying to convince yourself that you can be that person your family or friends want you to be.I think personal reflection is crucial for leaders. I believe that in order to increase a leaders competence, leaders have to continuously grow, learn, and reflect. In order to do that, you have to be true to yourself.In high school, I used to teach young children at a Hindi school every Sunday. Being in that environment and seeing how much of a positive impact I have on these young kids inspired me to lead in other aspects in my life. Having the opportunity to shape and mold these children into great role models, really gave me an insight on how principal(prenominal) it is to have a role model/leader to look up to. That experience really sparked my interest in becoming a leader. I think being able to directly impact someones life for their betterment is empowering. Overall, I think all leaders are committed to fox their group, organizatio n, company, etc. a better place.As I begin to speculate what makes me who I am that gets in the way of me exercising my leadership skills tellingly, a hardly a(prenominal) things come to mind. The first thing, again, it is my fear of turning or becoming into someone I am not without me realizing. I know in order to be a good leader you need to be a good follower.I fear while following, I follow a person who leads me to be a person that I am unhappy with. I think with that issue also comes a problem with trust. I should trust the person I am following and when I dont understand, question to understand why things are done a certain way. Like the cadet said, whatsoever of the most prevalent barriers I notice in myself are fear, desire for acceptance, desire to make everyone happy, not willing to take risks and previous ideas of what leaders should do and how they should act are the same barriers that I face being a leader. Along with those, I have a fear of being left out. It is cru cial to identify these barriers and be aware of them so you can slowly try to overcome them and not let them get in the way of you being an effective leader.View as multi-pages

Thursday, May 23, 2019

History of education Essay

Education driven by passion awakens us to a world bigger than ourselves and incurs us curious. Learning becomes self-sustaining as it transforms from a requirement to a desire. First of all, what is a globalisation education? A globalisation is a series of social, economical, educational, ethnological, cultural, and political changes that promote interdependence and growth. Globalization raises the standard of living in developing countries, spreads technological bashledge, and increases political liberation. The main cause of globalization is influence from other, more developed, countries.Globalization is a historical process that results from human innovation and technological progress. Creativity and applied science are very important as knowledge. Especially technology because it had jocked in many ways with educations. To me education is knowledge, success, intelligence, achievement. Education is the best because you can also teach others. I can just secern that some b ulk didnt have education are just lucky to become who they are. For example, Thomas Edison, Henry Ford and many other top-notch achievers never finished grade school.But They succeeded because they knew how to research, how to create certain activities to make them who they are. They also collect information for a selected project and process knowledge. Classroom surroundings does not work that way, it focuses on the collection of knowledge without a clear purpose, other than high class grades. If the purpose does not motivate, other than to please the teacher, then(prenominal) there is nothing to process outside of memorizing answers for test. The typical student is academic challenged while being motivation starved.Lack of motivation is lack of knowledge touch on skills. The typical college graduate will have a professional skill that supplies lifes basic needs. Additionally, the globalization education in the world is the intimately powerful thing that can exist because it i s the general base that people around the world have opportunity to learn things that didnt learn before. From twenty-four hours to day education expand much more to the world and thats the reason why technology became also more develop because people by doing research they are cultivation much more than they expected.Also while they are developing their knowledge they are also entertaining themselves. Technology in the globalization education allows certain people or nations around the world to stay closes. Moreover, we as a purchase order are destroying our childrens right to a quality education. By introducing the standardize test we have only accomplish integrity goal teaching our children how to take a test. It does not matter if they know the right answer it is multiple choice they have a one in four chance of getting it right. Standardize testing forces teachers to educate children one way.Children need creativity to learn. Our schools are heading in the same direction wi th the standardize test. Because children learn in different ways, we must introduce different styles of learning techniques into our schools. One way to do this is to encourage more creativity in education. The lack of creativity in teaching has been a significant issue in recent years. The report highlighted that children profit from using creative skills and by having these skills developed. It also suggested that creative teaching should be made department of all academic education.This was the origin time that this issue had been fully recognized. In response to this report, the government has acknowledged the significance of developing the creative skills of children, as these could become essential in time to come workplaces. The Nation Curriculum recognizes that many employers want and need creative people Schools that promote creativity will ensure that pupils respond positively to opportunities and responsibilities and are emend able to handle with new challenges as wel l as change and difficulty.Creativity helps teachers deliver the academic curriculum to students in an appealing manner. Further more, other basic source of learning is technology. Now a day, technology has become an important component in education. Especially the Internet that has allowed the world to communicate and allows nonetheless the people who cannot read to educate especially if the person is unable to go to school. They can do all their research on the internet.Everyday software makes people lives easier and improves on the technology. Making lives easier is not, however, the only role technology plays in our lives but it teaches us things we didnt know and helps us learn more than we thought we couldnt t learn. Technology is playing an increasing role in education. As technology advances, it is used to benefit students of all ages in the learning process. As technology advances, students have better access to educational opportunities like these.When something new and better is revealed, the older technology becomes more affordable, allowing it to be used in educational settings, all the same when schools are on a tight budget. Technology has also advanced to help children even before theyve started school. Educational video games and systems for young children help them dress for school and in some cases get a head start on their education. Regardless of these arguments, technology is an important part of todays auberge and education. In conclusion, there are many ways we can try to improve the world.For example, not open to innovation, Teachers, and much more. Education is a vital part of society in which everyone plays a role. It is not only the role of parents and teachers to support a childs education, but also the role of the whole society to provide a structure of living that supports what is being taught. Education is the way through everything. Lucky for us we have technology and much more to help us get through an education, so lets not waste the advantage of education we have and learn something so we can make a better future.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Getting Older Essay

IntroductionMath and numbers atomic number 18 used in e rattling aspect and in every part of our daily lives. Everything is numbers. This is no different with people. Humans start as newborns and, if they are blessed, become elders. Numerical order is overly used in determining our ages. The longer you live the erstwhile(a) you become and the more than things change. Aging is a part of life that should be embraced gracefully. There are three parts of old age. There are one-year-old old, middle aged old, and elderly old ages. Each part of being a senior citizen has its advantages and disadvantages.We still suck up to acknowledge the fact that the increase in living elders is reservation a major impact on the political aspects of being an old person. It seems to be and so we will explore why that the more seniors that survive each year seems to correspond with the lowering amount of funds available to them and more. We will attempt to cover the mark this senior citizen boom is making in the world for elders and those others it may affect. Aginga process that begins at birth and ends at deathhas implications not only for our own lives but also for every aspect of society. There are several problems being brought on by the indefinite increase in the aging commonwealth in the States as well as other places. Not only does it affect the capital that supports many of our elders but it also weighs on what happens with their retirement and if and how they should continue to work. direct more than ever elders find themselves having to work out of obligation to stay financially stable and be able to be taken care of by their own finances. Elders from a while back worked because they had the ability and strength to. They were not as out of shape or out of tune with life. They did not guttle as much and many processed foods as our generations have either which would explain the longevity.Depending on what your beliefs are the reason for the ever so shortening or lo nging of years could have something to do with spirituality as well as environmental conditions. The demographic pitch contour theory shows how the universe is changed throughout time.It is found on the study and documentation of changes in birth/death rates. These significant transitions Result from low-high birth/death rates to high-low birth/death rates. When the aging population begins to rapidly increase, it usually is because of less new-birth but also less death. Low birth rates are as a result of access to contraception, election to smaller families, urbanization and education of women. What a person prefers is often their business and left to their discretion, but with less youth, there are less younger adults that are able to take care of the older generation that may be needing help. Again we discuss treat homes and health care. This is to sayUltimately, there is nothing falsely with the elders surviving. However, we should remember that we have to keep an attitude a nd a balance of the population and the resources available to supply the population.. There are upsides to the increase in the aging population but there are also downsides. The pros could include the fact that elders need to be attended to more could open the door for young adults to find jobs, also being guided by successful elders who hold secrets to prospering is something no one can deny is very helpful, also elders hold to a brain of familiarity meaning that just when all the fads and trends calm down, elders are there to stabilize the air. As for the downsides of the aging population, the economy is not as able to grow right on because the work field is going down, also health care has increased costs as it relates to treatments and medical care that is always needed for old people, and to agree with more machinated tasks being carried out by machines as well as younger workers those skilled to work in a trade or a craft are not needed. Elders are having to make a choice b etween personal care from loved ones or the impersonal care that comes from nursing homes, home health nurses, or extended care facilities.Sadly, because of the lack of wanting to burden family members and the like, elders usually choose care from the list of impersonal care and internalise the neglect felt from having to do so. Advantages and disadvantages of implications of an aging population must be examined so that plans of implementation can be properly executed and adopted to seduce or balance the situation.The impact the older population is making does not have to be the be-all end-all factor of what is to happen as predicted by many. Increased habituation is believed to be one of the heaviest burdens that will cause the elderly to cripple the economy but it does not have to be so.We will also use the aforementioned(prenominal) to discuss the actions that must be taken to address the issue of the aging population. As well as having to rely on the government to make cert ainly that this problem that seems to have arisen is taken care of there are things that we can do to be effective as well. We can definitely make trustworthy our elders dont feel like burdens. When I was younger we were able to adopt a grandparent. They could have kids or grandkids but many did not have any that would visit often or at all. Wewould be allowed to spend time with them every weekend and it would just brighten their day to hear to the highest degree what we are allowed to do and what we would discuss with them. Something as simple as this wakes the elders fountainhead up in the nursing homes, it gets them excited again about life and their mind off where they are. Of course more financial and secure measures need to be taken but with just a simple economical start we could very well being on the road to the discovery of what works.ReferencesDemography Is Not Destiny The Challenges and Opportunities of Global Population Aging. Full textbook AvailableAcademic diaryU hlenberg, Peter Generations, 2013 Spring 37 (1) 12-8. (journal article case study) ISSN 0738-7806, Database CINAHL with Full Text Subjects Demography Aging World Health ForecastingAcademic journalBy Thomas, Kali S. Mor, Vincent. Health Services Research. Jun2013, Vol. 48 Issue 3, p1215-1226. 12p. 2 Charts, 1 Graph. DOI 10.1111/1475-6773.12015.The demographic transition causes and consequences.Detail Only AvailableAcademic JournalBy Galor, Oded. Cliometrica. Jan2012, Vol. 6 Issue 1, p1-28. 28p. DOI 10.1007/s11698-011-0062-7. , Database Business Source Elite Subjects STAGNATION (Economics) ECONOMIC development HUMAN capital DEMAND (Economic theory) DEMOGRAPHIC transition FERTILITY MORTALITYThe Implications of Increased Survivorship for Mortality Variation in Aging Populations Full Text Available Engelman, Michal Canudas-Romo, Vladimir Agree, Emily M. Population and Development Review, September 2010, v. 36, iss. 3, pp. 511-39, Database EconLit with Full Text Subjects Health Productio n Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts Economics of the Elderly Economics of the Handicapped Non-labor Market Discrimination.The Relationship between elder Americans Act deed III State Expenditures andPrevalence of Low-Care Nursing Home Residents. Full Text AvailableAcademic JournalBy Thomas, Kali S. Mor, Vincent. Health Services Research. Jun2013, Vol. 48 Issue 3, p1215-1226. 12p. 2 Charts, 1 Graph. DOI 10.1111/1475-6773.12015. Subjects NURSING home patients NURSING care facilities Finance MEDICAID Finance STATE Agencies On Aging CAREGIVERS UNITED States. Older Americans Act of 1965 Administration of Human Resource Programs (except Education, Public Health, and Veterans Affairs Programs) Nursing Care Facilities (Skilled Nursing Facilities) Community care facilities for the elderlyMarkson, E. W. & Stein, P. J. (2012). Social gerontology Issues & prospects. San Diego, CA Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Management of Primary and Secondary Education in Nigeria Essay

Introduction There is no gainsaying the fact that commandment is very vital to the pace of social, governmental and economic development of any nation. This is why most nations of the world strive to devote a sizeable proportion of their Gross National Income to develop the raisingal sector. In Nigeria, between 7. 6% and 9. 9% of our annual using up is devoted to pedagogy. Management of original commandment refers to the process of planning, organizing, directing, staffing, coordinating, budgeting for and reporting on base education system.Primary education in Nigeria refers to the education which children receive from the age of 6 years to 11 years plus. It is the foundation train of the educational system which runs for sextette years, and it is aimed at developing basic literacy, numeracy, communication skills and transmission of the culture of the people to younger generations. In figure of speechation gathered through the education information bank parades that as a t 1998, there were 41,814 primary shallows with an history of 16,348,324 (13. 75% of these were fe manfuls) and 468,770 teachers (26. 45%) of these were non-qualified teachers).The teacher/pupil ratio at the level was 138 while the closure rate was 64. 1 percent and the Crucial Issues in the Management of Primary education in Nigeria74 transition rate of products to Junior Secondary Education level was 39. 1 percent. The social organization of our population in Nigeria is much(prenominal) that about 45% of the people are within the age bracket of six to twelve years. gibe to the provisions of National Policy on Education, this is the corresponding age group for primary education. Obviously, the enrolment pattern in the educational system follows the pyramidal structure of the nations population distribution.The primary level has the largest enrolment, followed by the secondary level and then the tertiary level. This enrolment structure, no doubt, depicts the structure of ou r social beg for the various levels of education. The primary education level, being the bedrock of the childs basic education, is a very vital aspect of the nations educational system that deserves to be handled with great care and caution. Any error committed in the organization and perplexity of this level of education may reverberate on other levels and thus seriously mar the lives of the people and indeed the overall development of the nation.This is one devout reason why all the stakeholders must show enough concern for those issues that concern the organizing and managing of our primary education system. This paper presents a humble attempt to highlight some contemporary issues and problems facing the organization and vigilance of primary education in Nigeria with a view to proffering possible solutions to them. Contemporary Issues in Primary Education Management No doubt, there are numerous issues and problems involved in the worry of primary education system in Nigeri a.However, this paper would simply highlight some of the crucial ones. some of such issues hold a. Policy gap in the management of primary education in Nigeria, b. Data gaps, c. Funding gaps, d. Institutional capacity gaps, e. Expansion of the curriculum to bring home the bacon for earlier childhood care, f. Gender balancing in enrolment, g. Quality assurance in Primary Education, h. Improved nutrition/Health of learners and i. Issues of HIV/AIDS pandemic 75D. O. Durosaro everyplace the last two decades, the management of primary education had been experiencing some problems as a result of policy gaps.Teachers salaries were not paid qualifiedly, schools were not well-maintained and facilities were not adequately provided owing to the fact that management of primary education had to be oscillating among State regime, Local Government and federal official Government. At a time, State Government took control, later it was handed over to the Local Government and then to a Federal boot. Moreover, it was just until lately that a concrete legislation was passed on primary education in Nigeria the UBE Bill. Lack of surgical and timely data has long been the bane of policy formulation and management of our primary education system in Nigeria.To obtain accurate data on enrolment, teachers, non-teaching staff and tied(p) facilities appears to be a difficult task for the school managers. The school managers and teachers appear to lack adequate cognitive development in the areas of data collection, analysis and storage. Apart from this lack of capacity of the school managers, school data collection and analysis seem to be marred by other socio-politico-economic factors such as fraud, politics of home(a) resource allocation and social apathy. Another issue of concern in the management of primary education in Nigeria is that of inadequate championship.According to a World banking company survey on Nigeria, the federal expenditure on education seems to be below 1 0% of its overall expenditures. For instance, between 1997 and 2002, the total share of education in total federal expenditure ranged between 9. 9% and 7. 6% with the course of action showing a downward plunge (World Bank, 2002). Table 1 Federal Government Expenditure on Education as Percentage of total Federal Government Expenditure 1997 2002 _________________________________________________________ Expenditure199719981999200020012002 Area%%%%%% Recurrent12. 312. 011. 79. 49. 59. 1 Capital6. 17. 55. 08. 56. 06. 0 Total9.99. 69. 09. 07. 58. 0 Source FGN, Annual Budgets 1997-2002 It would have been more interesting to spell out what proportion of this expenditure on education actually goes to primary education but the non Crucial Issues in the Management of Primary Education in Nigeria76 availability of accurate data did not permit this. It is even worth mentioning here that the bulk of this meager expenditure shown on Table 1 even goes to recurrent activities. This issue of under- funding of education U so endemic that it has now encompassed series of other problems of shortages of human and material resources (Durosaro, 2000).The current pattern of investment within the education sector is such that the tertiary level gets the lion share while the primary level gets the least. This pattern is inversely related to number of institutions, enrolment and teachers at the different education levels. Table 2 presents the data on the pattern of funding of the educational levels by the Federal government. Table 2 Pattern of Federal Government funding of Education by levels, more 1996 2002 ____________________________________________________________ __ Educ.1996199719981999200020012002 Levels%%%%%%% Tertiary79. 978. 968. 469. 175. 868. 176. 9 Secondary10. 411. 314. 618. 715. 315. 515. 6 Primary9. 79. 816. 912. 28. 916. 47. 5 Total100. 0100. 0100. 0100. 0100. 0100. 0100. 0 The issue of gaps in the institutional capacity to deliver primary education of a sound quality is withal crucial in the management of primary education in Nigeria. It is a known fact that most of our institutions do not have vision whether written or unwritten nor a mission statement to guide their activities.There is widespread shortage of qualified teachers, shortage of even classrooms, shortage of both pupils and teachers furniture and a dearth of required fund, teaching materials and textbooks. In a survey conducted on primary education cost, financing and management in Federal Capital Territory, Kogi, Kwara and Niger States, it was discovered that only f9. 57% of the schools in Kwara and 27. 08% of the schools in FCT had school libraries while none of the schools in both Kogi and Niger States had any school library. It was also found that 24% of schools in Kogi State, 21% of schools in Kwara State, 40.3% of schools in Niger State and 16. 75% of schools in FCT were not using any form of wall charts teaching aids (Abdulkareem and Umar, 1997). All these gaps have combined with frequent teachers strikes and absenteeism in recent years to weaken the capacity of the institutions to deliver sound primary education. 77D. O. Durosaro Furthermore, there is an emerging issue of great importance in the management of primary education in Nigeria. This is that of restructuring the level by expanding it to accommodate both the advance(prenominal) childhood care and the pre-primary education curriculum.This is now a burning issue in view of the level of social poverty and the need for poverty relief by economic empowerment of women. Stakeholders in primary education are now being mobilized towards this direction with a view to encouraging both worldly concern and private participation. This issue will however have grave implications for funding, personnel, facilities, curriculum development and monitoring. A related dimension of this issue is that of expanding and restructuring the system to also cater adequately for the almajiris, area boys, street children a nd disabled school-age populace across the nation.Furthermore, the issue of poor enrolment in primary schools in some special areas should be of great importance to primary education management in Nigeria. This issue has three major dimensions. The first is that of how to ensure gender balance in enrolment in some parts of the country. owe to some socio-cultural factors in some parts of the country, female enrolment needs to be improved. In another part, it is the male enrolment that needs improvement. But in majority of cases, the second dimension is that of non-enrolment in public schools. Parents prefer the private school since they appear more effective.The one-third dimension of this issue is ensuring retention and completion once enrolled. Resolving this issue is closely connected to the next issue of poverty alleviation and provision of good nutrition for children. The issue of poverty alleviation is more about the parents and the wider social constituency of primary educati on. This phenomenon impacts greatly on schooling particularly at the primary level. Owing to poverty, parents cannot afford to buy school uniforms, books, pay transportation cost and even provide good nutrition for their children.These impair both teaching and learning. There is no doubt that the primary school management should find a way of intervening in assisting the pupils within the national framework of poverty alleviation scheme. Some States have already introduced free mid-day meal service to primary schools. This meal service has some implications for school management to ensure it is . not counter-productive. Nutritional public assistance in childhood has been shown to have large benefit on school performance as well as physical and mental capacity in later life (World Bank, 2003).Crucial Issues in the Management of Primary Education in Nigeria78 A similar issue which could also impact seriously on primary education is that of HIV/AIDS pandemic. This could have impact on both teachers and students and its effect on parents or guardians of the pupils could spillover to the school. It was reported in 2001 that the prevalence rate was 5. 8% of teachers nationally (World Ban, 2003). Across the federation, it was found to range between 1. 8% of teacher population in Jigawa and 13. 5% of the teacher population in Benue.This disease was found to be prevalent in the age-group 20 24 years which forms the core age group from which primary school teachers are recruited in Nigeria. Table 3 Projected Teacher Attrition due to HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Selected States of Nigeria, 2003 ____________________________________________________________ __ StatesNo. of TeachersPrevalence rateAttrition of % of HIV/A IDSTeachers Benue1384813. 5185 Lagos180405. 590 Plateau175265. 098 Rivers83215. 542 Table 3 presents the projected attrition of teachers due to HIV/AIDS disease in some selected States of Nigeria.This projection is based on the rates found for these States in a pre vious survey reported by the World Bank. Given the clear fact that AIDS is real and the spread is growing, there is the need to estimate its likely impact on the primary education management in Nigeria and ensure the problems are contained. This could be done through base of HIV/AIDS sensory faculty programmes on the school curriculum for both learners, teacher and even parents. Expert could be invited to assist in enlightening the school community on how to fleck the spread of this pandemics.Conclusion It is quite clear from the foregoing that for primary education in Nigeria to achieve its stated objectives, these crucial issues of policy, funding, data, curriculum review and capacity buildings gaps must be squarely addressed by education managers in Nigeria. In addition, the issues of genderization, poverty alleviation, pupils and teachers health and nutrition need prompt attention of the stakeholders and managers of 79D. O. Durosaro the system. Primary education is central t o the achievement of the overall national educational goals.The primary education managers, in their quest to continue to meet the national demand for primary education quite efficiently and effectively, must ever device new and improved ways of managing the system. The following recommendations are put forth There is need for the creation of more social awareness on the recent Ube Bill to ensure compliance. The various States and Local Governments should also back this up with edicts and byelaws where necessary. Various tiers of government should also formulate clear policies on enrolment of pupils, funding, provision of facilities as well as quality assurance.There is the urgent need to set a national minimum standard for primary education which must be followed by all providers of primary education in Nigeria whether private or public. Since the government is soundless the major source of found to education in Nigeria, there is the need to change the pattern of funding so that provision for primary education should adequately match its needs, To be able to take sound decisions on the management of primary education in Nigeria, there is the need to ensure availability of accurate data on the system.The present effort of the Federal Ministry of Education in collaboration with both the UNESCO and UNDP on the creation of an Education Data Bank is highly commendable (FGN/UNE SCO/UN DP, 2003). The government should give the data bank all the enabling environment required to generate and analyse and bank the data. The institutional managers and teachers should be constantly trained and retrained in the modern data management techniques. There is the need to step up the institutional capacity building. The school managers should be mandated to attend teach workshops and conferences to improve their managerial skills.Organizations like the National Institute for Educational Planning and Administration, which have been set up for capacity building in educational m anagement, should be empowered to start some annual training programmes towards this end. Concerted efforts by ways of quality control and monitoring would improve the quality of public schools and the cat from them to private schools would be checked. Effort should also be made to promote gender balance in schools Crucial Issues in the Management of Primary Education in Nigeria80 through gender sensitivity of the teachers, curriculum and teaching materials.The school environment should be made more child-friendly. The government needs to step up its poverty alleviation process by rendering assistance to parents indirectly through provision of free books, uniforms and even free mid-day meals to the children of the poor. There is need to go into more aggressively on the public enlightenment on the HIV/AIDS disease control. This would help reduce both pupil and teacher dismissal that this disease could cause. References Abdulkareem, A. Y. and I. O. Umar (1997) Follow-up Study on Pr imary Education Cost, Financing and Management in Kogi, Kwara and Nigeria States and the Federal Capital Territory.National Primary Education Commission Project. Durosaro, D. O. (2000) Resource Allocation and Utilization for University Education in Nigeria, Trends and Issues in E. G. Fagbamiye and D. O. Durosaro (eds,). Education and Productivity in Nigeria, N AEAP 51-67. Federal Government of Nigeria (1997 2002) Annual Budgets World Bank (2003) School Education in Nigeria Preparing for Universal Basic Education. , (Human Development II, African Region), September 1. FGN/UNESCO/UNDP (2003). A Decade of Basic Education Data in Nigeria (1988-1998).

Monday, May 20, 2019

Ethics on Immanuel Kants Categorical Imperative Essay

Abstr stage . Kants ideas or his take on ethics was ground upon autonomy (self-governance), and drive. He believed that unless a person freely and leadingly energises a choice, then their action has no meaning often less any example value. Kant similarly thought that e rattling troops when using reason when analyzing good quandarys would in fact match with what he called the compressed jussive mood. In accordance with the pricy entrust aspects Kants claims on good bequeath is the only thing that fuel be con stancered good without limitation.In this musical theme I provide discourse several situations that I chip in been involved in where both the Categorical irresponsible and a good will ware applied to my personal experiences. Before I disembowel started I would kindred to bemuse a little more light on the Categorical Imperative that Kant and others viewed as very priceless and vital if trying to understand the complexity of ethics and his moral philosoph y. It is also important that wholeness mustiness clearly interpret exactly what the Categorical Imperative consist of in advance trying to administer or apply its ordinance to anyone.As human beings we t determination to always bewilder to discombobulate a tenacious answer based on reasoning from one source or another. Kant as a philosopher in all probability conceived ethics as the study of how it would be most rational to act, which is elegant straight forward indeed, still a a few(prenominal) of the core aspects of Kants Categorical Imperative have many arguments posed against them in specific from a Utilitarian perspective. I have done a corporation of things that can merit a superior conclusion, and I have also committed acts that result in me being once as far as the small side of the coin goes, did I make whoopie the rewards or gratitude inclined to me collectible to my actions that were viewed as moral or the right thing to do? Yes I enjoyed th em and I will probably sub-consciously commit those comparable acts again. Now in accordance with the superior side of things I also have helped others I never even met that because I felt that it was a good will and I stand by those which make them a article of faith. on that pointfore I am superior in those particular cases.I do not believe that it is hard to find an undivided that acts out of mere principle and expects no reward, I believe that it is just a lot of venal and naive people that argon not willing to be honest about their true reason or rationalizing. The philosophical views from one of the greatest German philosophers to ever live continue to interest and influence scholarly opinions all around the world. Immanuel Kant was one of those brilliant thinkers or philosophers that were able to give valuable insight that surround many dissimilar estimable values of pietism.Kants ideas or his take on ethics was based upon autonomy (self-governance), and reason. H e believed that unless a person freely and willingly makes a choice, then their action has no meaning much less any moral value. Kant also thought that every man when using reason when analyzing moral dilemmas would in fact agree with what he called the Categorical Imperative. In accordance with the good will aspects Kants claims on good will is the only thing that can be considered good without limitation.In this paper I will discuss several situations that I have been involved in where both the Categorical Imperative and a good will have applied to my personal experiences. Before I get started I would interchangeable to shed a little more light on the Categorical Imperative that Kant and others viewed as very valuable and vital if trying to understand the complexity of ethics and his moral philosophy. It is also important that one must clearly interpret exactly what the Categorical Imperative consist of before trying to administer or apply its formula to anyone.As human beings we tend to always have to have a logical answer based on reasoning from one source or another. Kant as a philosopher probably conceived ethics as the study of how it would be most rational to act, which is pretty straight forward indeed, only when a few of the core aspects of Kants Categorical Imperative have many arguments posed against them especially from a Utilitarian perspective. I have done a lot of things that can merit a superior conclusion, and I have also committed acts that result in me being rewarded.Now as far as the inferior side of the coin goes, did I enjoy the rewards or gratitude given to me due to my actions that were viewed as moral or the right thing to do? Yes I enjoyed them and I will probably sub-consciously commit those same acts again. Now in accordance with the superior side of things I also have helped others I never even met just because I felt that it was a good will and I stand by those which make them a principle.Therefore I am superior in those partic ular cases. I do not believe that it is hard to find an individual that acts out of mere principle and expects no reward, I believe that it is just a lot of dishonest and naive people that are not willing to be honest about their true reason or rationalizing. Just because one person may will a certain thing does not mean that the majority of people will follow suit. For example a key element of Kants hypothesis is the concept of intentions or intent.To him the actual outcome or the consequences of a particular action doesnt matter at all, its the intentional aspects he is concerned with. Imagine that you are a ordered killer just walking down the street and you see a defenseless fourth-year f advertise sex walking in front of you.Its no one else around and its very pertinacious on the streets. You also have a knife to ensure a silent job and a very easy kill. Now lets verbalize you decide not to kill this elderly woman and spare her life, barely not because you are worried ab out acting im morally but you did not want to risk her screaming and alerting anyone else that she was being attacked. In the end u immovable not to act on your will then agree to Kant you have not acted ethically. Thats where I find flaw in his analysis and theory.So our actions according to Kants philosophy doesnt make us a better person because when you acted or (chose not to act), you werent considering action in legal injury of its morality. You actually abandoned the ideas of moral choice, and merely acted out of a sense of self preservation. However if you did chose not to kill the elderly woman because you suddenly realized that it was wrong to do so, then you would have acted morally according to Kants theory on Categorical Imperative. Can the Categorical Imperative even accurate enough and practical to be applied into a personal real life ethical dilemma?I do not believe that it could. My interpretation of Kants theory was the he thought that if everyone just used rea son when trying to figure out their ethical duties, then everyone would come up with the same rules to follow. This may be true but I would say that it is very unlikely that humans will ever be unbiased enough to do this, and the Categorical Imperative fails to take into account the complexity of human beings and their relationships to one another. The formula that Kant used was the concepts surrounding normal law.By this universal law formula he was able to capture the concept that a maxim will work for everyone who it is applied too. The side by side(p) formula Kant used was the end in itself which occurs when people try to use maxims, (rules that suit themselves) this formulation states that we must not treat others as if they do not have their own life, and respect their acts regardless of ethical belief. It may be my duty to give a small contribution of my earnings to charity, church, or to the homeless person indeed, but a homeless man cannot demand that I do so for him becau se I am not a means to his end, and he has to respect that concept.The key thing to keep in idea here is that you cant use people just as a means to an end because people are ends in themselves. For example you couldnt kill a baby Hitler just because that will save a thousand Jews, according to Kantain perspectives. With the baby Hitler example the maxim would be killing babies that will commit genocide when they grow up. On the contrary what if that was a moral rule like you must kill any babies that will grow up and commit genocide. If the maxim could function as a rule, then actions based on it will be morally right.These maxims also serve as a way to better understand the rigidly parameters that surround ethical issues. Now as I said earlier on I have a foot-hole in both aspects of this topic. I have done things to receive rewards especially when beautiful women are around. And I have also just given a pure stranger a ride home in the rain after seeing them struggle with groce ries. And I never told a soul it was just a mere act of benevolence and the ethical thing to do as far as good will goes. That is what makes Kants theory in my eyes as stand byary to my individuality. I do not agree with him on some aspects of his analysis and some I can relate too.We all are presented with these scenarios and many of us as typical human beings tend to neglect the infrastructure behind morality of ethical issues. I would say that ethical theory must have examples attached to them otherwise it wouldnt be a very good ethical theory. These theories can never be applied practically if one could not animadvert using them in different circumstances. The Categorical Imperative does sort of show any rational persuasion person both how to tell the difference between right and wrong, and the moral necessity to choose to act in accordance with whats right.Personally I fall right in between when it comes to this as I said I have done a little of both sides, being superior( acting out of principles), and I have acted to gain reward but not as much as I have been considered superior. I try my best to act accordingly with morality, and being a commit Christian this isnt that hard. My main source of morality stems from the Bible. I use the Bibles principles as a signpost to how to act morally. I believe that this is the only true source of ethical acts, and that there is no man made doctrines or philosophies that can properly address this complex issue.As long as I understood Gods Laws and follow a righteous path, morality or acting morally comes like second nature. So to sum it all up about Kants perspectives I believe he was a little more concerned with a persons intentions than a consequentialist with utilitarian views, but Kant did flavor that if you didnt act according to the Categorical Imperative you could be accused of acting unethically. It was clear that Kant like me was not content with the popular moral philosophy of his day. According to K ant, when we act upon a maxim that cant be universalized or (willed by everyone else) we are contradicting ourselves.Meaning that without a will that everyone else views as quarry then any action taken can potentially contradict ones self. To nurture understand Kants philosophy I will walk you through a series of scenarios that I have experienced in my life. I can recall several occasions where the categorical Imperative aspect of Kants philosophy has shed light on my ethical or morally based actions. One afternoon I was riding down the street and I noticed a few guys struggling with groceries trying to get back to their school.I could have kept going and actually I did, but I decided to turn around and offer them a ride to their destination. Now according to Kants good will I acted on a matter of principle, and not to gain reward. There was nothing I expected to gain from my actions. Now if I had asked them for gas money or perhaps some sort of payment for the ride then at that point I become inferior according to Kants Categorical Imperative. There was another instance when I acted morally and ethically in Kants eyes and that was the time I acknowledged an older woman attempting to put air in her tire at Kroger grocery store.Actually at the time I was in need of air for my tire too and the clerk had turned on the machine but before I got there to it she came and was experiencing distract getting the air in her tire. I politely offered her assistance and she was very grateful and she insisted that I take five dollars for my actions. Now I in fact was not expecting to get paid for this, but she insisted that I take it. I made it very clear that I felt that this was a universal duty of mine to assist at a time when my assistance was clearly needed.She was older and having trouble with the air pump so I felt an obligation to assist her so I did so. Now did I act morally according to Kants Categorical Imperative and the good will? Was I superior or inferior? Yes I acted morally because Kant was not concerned with outcome or consequences he only focused on the intent of that particular action. Kant also emphasizes the absolute necessity of separating genuine morality from all empirical considerations. I find Kants formula to be a valuable shaft but it neglects to define moral law as God-given.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Framing Decisions Essay

Millhouse on his situation came up with his conclusion upon relying on the structure contained by how the sell was presented to him. No matter how, it is possible that Millhouse had been into a great deal of confusion when he was deciding. It was present in his mind that the family is in need of that supplementary part and is in search of materials that are of goodly quality. And that this vender has been instinctively conscious of the probable framing Millhouse could have in mind.At the same time, this seller has this skill to do sales talk and persuading a customer was indeed an easy thing on his part. He was capable to handle the situation. A good offer from the salesman was initiated and the selling price was specified less(prenominal) than 40 cents a day just like the price of a soda. It was presented positively that at the end, the company would be satisfied by a high service utility by just disbursement likely of only a soda a day. The soda became the entity of assessment and it helped Millhouse comprehend the gains more gamely than the losses.He was also glad that he was not al hotshot to see the benefits of purchasing these goods. He terminate up deciding with this framework to buy them because he was swept away by the promises of the benefits presented by the salesman. In looking on the alternative sense, what if Millhouse thought of looking out for better material possible? What if he conducted first price comparison of same material? What if he made calculations in the aggregate using up upon purchasing them and rather compares it with the benefits it can give and or with some?The alternative frame could have go on up with other results depending on how an individual reacts on a certain presentation of a problem. Factors affect the alternative framework greatly molds our way of decision making. Also, group decisions may be at variate thoroughly from a champion person decision in provisions of endings and/or procedures. So, it states clear ly that one can strongly influence the other and by that, moral considerations are being deserted for ones own good.ReferencesFraming. February 05, 2008 retrieved from http//framing. behaviouralfinance. net/

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Family as portrayed in mass media Essay

Through the years, the role played by media dedicated socially relevant and noteworthy impacts to society. Because of exposes and investigative reports, several high-profiled and ranking individuals or personalities were forced to exit the limelight. The scandals and controversies that they went through were just too much to bear. Whether such situations were intentional or unintentional, still it cannot be denied that medias appeal and effects cannot be easily dismissed. On the other hand, media channels are also responsible for providing much necessitate information to the public.Every single day, it has been a habit for many to enjoy their favorite news programs. Others, who do not have the luxury of time, rely on newspapers and online news sites to keep on track and retain aware of the important issues of their respective communities. In recent years, universe informed is a necessity so one(a)r than a mere caprice of ones intellectual vanity. As information channels, in t hat location is no doubt that bunch media has also assume the role of educating and indoctrinating many.However, if there is one thing wherein media is readily recognizeit is its capacity to bring pleasure and entertainment right in the very portals or domains of ones house. While this may sound too superficial or critical aroundwhat medias function and importance, providing momentary relaxation and enjoyment is one of the fundamental reasons behind the continuous natural selection of different media institutions. Mass media are not created out of a vacuum. Aside from mans proclivity to communicate and express himself, pickle media also serve as the bread and butter of various transaction tycoons.Yes, it cannot be denied the fact that media are also business establishments or organizations that are aiming towards corporate-related goals and attributions, rather than maintaining its role as the publics herald and opinion platforms. This also best explains why different media establishments use mass appeal as one of the intimately important factors to consider in producing various kinds of media content. As a result, various kinds of media-related products are often characterized by their mediocrity and artificiality.There are instances wherein media examples of real numberity are sort to exaggerated or romanticized. The situations and events that are presented seem be too imaginary and does not really declaim the happenings of the real world. Like plain pictures, reality, as shown in mass media channels, such as the newspapers, radio and about especially in films and television programs are often sanitized. The situations and events that are actually happening in the real world are readily modified to capture the publics attention and therefore pull together high ratings and a pool of advertisers.On one hand, this aspect is something that commonly occurs. whiz should not be surprised with this system. However, since mass media are pretty influen tial, somehow it also sees the views and behaviors of their respective audiences. If the media is expected to become harbingers of association and information, then clearly, this scenario defeats such purpose. Realitys portrayal and depiction in mass media is yet one of the most important issues and areas of concern that should be attended and carefully addressed.This stems from the fact that media is the so-called fourth nation which means that these organizations are influential. It can shape and mould the opinions and views of many, which in return, are essential in creating unavoid adequate public decisions. In a sense, their notion of reality as portrayed by media can affect the manner wherein an individual generates action and responses towards his or her environment. unitary of the most popular themes that are often shown in the media, to be more specific in television shows and programs, revolve around family matters.Basically, there are some reasons that can explain t he proliferation and promotion of such media content. First of all, filial concerns are generic and encompassing. It is generic since either human macrocosm belongs to a family. Regardless of whether a person grew up in a cherish family, still the notion of belonging to a highly reliable and trusted group is still apparent. by chance the only difference is that, in such a scenario, the biological connections are absent. But then again, in terms of having a primary foundation for ones identity and members who are always there throughout the time are evident.The kind of togetherness and identification that other groups cannot possibly provide can be seen in the family. Tackling topics and themes regarding the family provides a common ground for many viewers. The problems and experiences that are shown in family oriented shows are pensive of the daily undertakings of an individual. It is easier for the audience to relate and connect to such themes. Understanding the concepts that are organism shown does not generate much difficulty compared to other television programs.Despite of the fact that there are episodes which may be on heavy themes, the complexity may not be as intense as those of highly-customized shows such as documentaries for example or even in television programs that specifically deals with scientific-related issues and concerns. Given this aspect at hand, family oriented shows can capture the attention and interest of the viewers majority in a household. Within a family of five, there is a big chance for a family-oriented program to control these audiences.One can just imagine how many viewers a family oriented show can lay in in just a single episode. This of course does not include patrons who are outside of the coupled States. Lastly, it can be also argued that family television programs or shows have less possibilities of being subject to censoring by media regulation boards and groups. Family alone as a concept means that children ar e involved. Therefore, the producers of these shows should be untrusting about the language that they use. This is already given regardless of whether minor audiences are really involved or not.Being tactful is strictly observed. What does this mean? This means that the show can somehow avoid the pitfalls and repercussions of being suspended and paying large amounts or sums of fines. The operations are maintained and somehow the program is able to enjoy a considerably high rating and at the same time retain its most loyal viewers or audiences. There is indeed a market for family-oriented shows and programs. However, the more pressing issues and concerns that should be given focus in here is the manner wherein mass media portrays and depict the overall picture of family life.One of the most immediate matters that should be addressed is whether the actual reality of what is happening within the lives of many families is very shown in television shows and sitcoms. More often than not , while it is true that mass media seeks for objectivity and unbiased representation of reality, it is still affected by the politics, culture and orientation that surrounds it. These forces cannot be really excluded in the whole handling since these have effects and impacts when it comes to media content.Yet, one should be wary of the fact that focusing on how family life is being shown in mass media channels covers a wide scope. Therefore, in order to make the study more specific and maintain clarity, the explanations and arguments presented in this paper shall provide emphasis on how sexual activity roles are being contextualized in family-oriented programs or shows. In lieu to this, power relations and class struggles shall be touched and canvas in the whole discussion. The whole concept and meaning of the term family connotes and convey oneness, togetherness and belongingness. However, the divisions that are brought upon by gender and sexual orientations somehow affect the t hree notions. At the same time, this also have an impact on how the overall picture of being family is being created right in front of the publics eyes. If mass media has the power to reflect the multi-faceted aspects of reality, then the shows and programs that are shown by these institutions is expected to bring realityas resolve as possible to its specific set of audience and viewers.The overall system that dictates society is still patriarchal. The political science rule that is practiced and adhered to is still male-oriented. But then again, it can be seen that the so-called girl empowerment is now making its presence felt. Women are no longer seen as the weaker sex. However, many have been well-known(prenominal) with the male system that totally asserting womens voices and opinions becomes a complicated task. In this context, whether equality and rightness is already achieved, shall be answered in the succeeding parts of the discussion.

Friday, May 17, 2019

5-Pen Pc Technology Essay

P-ISM is a Pen-style Personal Networking Gadget pile. This technology is a technology of five dodge package which has five functions1. Pen-style cellular phone provide bridge player data input function.2. virtual(prenominal)(prenominal) Keyboard.3. constrict size Projector.4. Camera S back toothner.5. Personal ID key with cashless refund function.These five gadgets communicate with each separate by the use of short wireless technology. This technology uses the cellular phone function to set up a connection with the internet . Bluetooth is extensively utilise because this technology permits to transmit data(like songs, files, photos, phone numbers etc.) or innovation connections without wires. This is very effective because we can able to connect at anyplace and at anytime without having wires. They are used at the frequency band of 2.4 GHz ISM (although they use varied access weapons). Blue tooth mechanism is used for exchanging signal status instruction amongst two devic es. This techniques have been developed that do non require communication between the two devices (such as Blue tooths Adaptive Frequency Hopping), the most(prenominal) efficient and comprehensive outcome for the most serious problems can be accomplished by atomic number 14 vendors. They can implement information exchange capabilities within the designs of the Bluetooth.LED ProjectorThe LED Projector takes the place of monitor which projects on the screen. The size of the projector is of A4 size. It has the penny-pinching resolution capacity of 1024 X 768. Thus it gives more clarity and good picture.Virtual KeyboardVirtual optical maser Keyboard (VLK)is a new gadget for PC users which replaces the hardwarekeyboard. It through laser gibe onto the desk or onto the flat surface where you can find the full-size perfectly operating QWERTY arrangement keyboard which connects to the PC as well as to other handheld devices(PDAs , tablet PCs etc.).digital CameraIts working is like the webcam, you can do video recording, video conferencing with it. It can connect with other devices and because of its small size you can carry it in your pocket. It has 360 degree visual communication device.Battery commonly the laptops and other devices comes with the outpouring life of 4 hours , 6 hours etc. but this small device has the outpouring life of 6+(i.e. 6 days) and for normal use its battery work for 2 weeks.Author-Ms. Deepti Gupta folk 20, 2012http// Pen PC Technology Documentation Free DownloadP-ISM (Pen-style Personal Networking Gadget Package), which is nothing but the new discovery, which is under developing, stage by NEC Corporation. 5 Pen PC Technology is a gadget package including five functions a pen-style cellular phone with a handwriting data input function, virtual keyboard, a very small projector, camera scanner, and face-to-face ID key with cashless pass function. 5 Pen PC Technology are connected with one another through short-range wireless technology. The whole set is excessively connected to the Internet through the cellular phone function. This personal gadget in a minimalist pen style enables the ultimate ubiquitous computing.In fact, no-one expects oft activity on 802.11n installations until the middle of 2008. Rolling out 802.11n would mean a big upgrade for customers who already have full Wi-Fi coverage, and would be a complex add-on to existing wired networks, for those who havent. Bluetooth is widely used because we can able to transfer data or make connections without wires. 5 Pen PC Technology is very effective because we can able to connect whenever we need without having wires.5 Pen PC Technology are used at the frequency band of 2.4 GHz ISM (although they use different access mechanisms). Blue tooth mechanism is used for exchanging signal status information between two devices. 5 Pen PC Technology techniques have been developed that do not require communication between the two devices (such as Blue tooths Adaptive Frequency Hopping), the most efficient and comprehensive solution for the most serious problems can be accomplished by silicon vendors. They can implement information exchange capabilities within the designs of the Blue tooth. The circuit diagram for the 802.11B/G is given below. It is nothing but also type of Blue tooth. Using this connectivity we can also connect it with the internet and can access it anywhere in the world.LED ProjectorThe role of monitor is taken by LED Projector which projects on the screen. The size of the projector is of A4 size. It has the approximate resolution capacity of 1024 X 768. Thus it is gives more clarity and good picture.Virtual KeyboardThe Virtual Laser Keyboard (VKB) is the ULTIMATE new gadget for PC users. The VKB emits laser on to the desk where it looks like the keyboard having QWERTY arrangement of keys i.e., it uses a laser beam to generate a full-size perfectly operating laser keyboard that smoothl y connects to of PC and more or less of the handheld devices (PDAs, tablet PCs). The I-Tech laser keyboard acts exactly like any other ordinary keyboardFeatures of virtual keyboards are1.VKB settings can be changed by Sound 2.Controllable Virtual Keyboard sound effects (key clicks) 3.Connection Connection to the attach Laptop/PC port 4.Intensity Intensity of the projected Virtual Keyboard 5.Timeouts coordinated timeouts to conserve the Virtual Keyboards battery life 6.Sensitivity adjustable sensitivity of the Virtual Keyboard 7.Auto-repeat Allows the VKB to automatically repeat a key ground on prescribed parameters.BatteryThe most important part in the portable type of calculating machine is its battery. Usually batteries must be small in size and work for longer time. It comes with a battery life of 6+. For normal use it can be used for 2 weeks.This pen associate of instrument produces both the monitor as well as the keyboard on any flat surfaces from where you can carry out f unctions you would normally do on your desktop computer.REFERENCE-2012/07/5http//university-help.blogspot.comPosted by Mahesh