Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Proposal Argument PRATICAL PROPOSAL offering a solution to a local Essay

Proposal Argument PRATICAL PROPOSAL offering a solution to a local problem - Essay Example Add to the fact that women no matter in whatever position they work in are considered objects of titillation. What this leads to in some cases is sexual abuse physically and mentally. "BANGALORE(India): Being the largest BPO hub in the world, over 200 domestic, multinational, captive and pure-play companies in Bangalore employ two lakh call centre executives, of which women account for 50%. Like sounding a rousing call alarm I come to learn of a ghastly act committed on one of those members of the carefree lot. Utmost disbelief and fear gripped me as I read of the rape and murder of a 28-year-old city woman BPO worker in the same city. This is not the first instance that we come to hear of the exploitation of a working woman, sexually or otherwise. A woman has always been considered weak, meek and powerless. She has been imagined as an object of sexual and erotic fantasy and men have tried to exploit the fairer sex more often than not. On thinking a lot about the predicament the solutions I could think of include, as the old dictum goes, "Self defence is the best defence". Physical protection does not always mean exertion, stamina or endurance. Simple but effective methods of martial arts can stand her in good stead in moments of extreme danger. A focused effective kick with minimum exertion and maximum reflex can be used by a woman for self ammunition. Here martial arts techniques like Karate, Kung-fu, Kick boxing et al can be useful. At times self- defence training can prove to be lifesaving in prevention of rape, incest and sexual abuse. ALTERNATE PROPOSAL: Sometimes danger may take one off guard. Especially in the case of women working in night shifts as our newspaper article pointed out. The minimization o physical abuse and danger is taken care of with the use of technology and constant monitoring. An example to illustrate this point is the case of Chennai-based Perot Systems BPS India. They purpotedly have introduced a global positioning system on vehicles used for the transportation of women workers in their company. This is a foolproof system for the safety of women working late hours, the company officials claim.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Witness essay 2012 hsc Essay Example for Free

Witness essay 2012 hsc Essay How does Weir’s portrayal of the relationship between Book and his world move us into a deeper understanding of power? The 1985 film ‘witness’ directed by Peter weir is a crime/drama that develops the theme of conflict though individual power on a social, cultural and personal level. These areas of power are highlighted through the use of film techniques such as; camera shots, camera angles, lighting and costume. The film outlines the juxtaposition between mainstream American society and the Amish community in regional Pennsylvania, the theme of power between Book and his world precisely emphasize this juxtaposition. The competent American society is seen as a violent and arrogant group of people, whereas the Amish community is seen as the defenceless peaceful, religious group of people. Peter weir is careful to portray power realistically; he does this though the use of violence. Weir uses three basic groups when it comes to violence. The Amish, who refuse violence in all circumstances, men like John Book who use violence to achieve justice, and the perpetrators of violence, people like Schaeffer and Mcfee, who use violence to achieve outcomes and power. Books life is one abundant with violence that is the consequence of his line of work, which essentially is present due to his authorised general level of power, he is a police officer so by law enforcement is required to exert his power though violence and literal means in order to protect and support the community in which he lives, even if this means extermination of one’s life. Weir presents the violence in the film in a graphic, confronting way. This is done to emphasise to the audience the bloody consequences that come from negative use of power to achieve justice or commit crimes. By not sensationalising violence, weir creates a realistic mis en scene; however Weir presents that violence, as used by people like John Book is necessary, as long as people like Mcphee and Schaeffer exist. The impracticality of the Amish view is presented when they are shown being harassed by tourists. Eli’s statement â€Å"it happens, we ignore them†, show that it is a regular occurrence. The idea of not using violence, even in self defence is shown to be impractical in the wider world. The Amish are community is here portrayed as one in absence of power, even though they could possibly defend themselves or use violence they choose to accept the disturbance by the modern society, and use pacifism to be genuine to their culture, being respective but vulnerable. However accompanying them is John Book, being a stereotypical police officer he possesses the power in violence and is unafraid and unrestricted to making use of it. By utilising the power he has hold of, he attacks the hecklers as he is ambiguous to achieving a sense of justice for the Amish, demonstrating the conflicting use of power when Eli says â€Å"it’s not our way† and John Book replies â€Å"but it’s my way†.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Harold E. Stearns’ Critique of American Culture in the Book, Civilization in the United States :: American America History

Harold E. Stearns’ Critique of American Culture in the Book, Civilization in the United States Harold E. Stearns and his colleagues set out on a mission to enlighten and inform the American society of the 1920’s in their book entitled Civilization in the United States. Thirty-three authors with the aid of an editor, Stearns, instead produced a highly controversial and inadequate account of certain aspects of life in American society. According to critic Arthur Schlesinger the writers of Civilization in the United States fell short of their goal of producing a critical depiction of American society and instead wrote "supercilious reflections" (167). There are three main themes presented in each essay included in Civilization. They are as follows: Americans are hypocritical, American civilization is not Anglo-Saxon nor nationalistic, and finally American social life lacks emotion. Stearns chose his writers very carefully. He wanted each of them to be blunt and straight to the point in their essays, especially when writing on these three themes. In his preface, Stearns himself states: "If these main contentions seem severe or pessimistic, the answer must be: we do not write to please; we strive only to understand and to state as clearly as we can" (vii). It is obvious that Harold Stearns wanted to voice his ideas and those of his counterparts in an open, bold fashion and that is why each essay touches on the main themes mentioned above. Critic Arthur Schlesinger, however mentions in his critique of Civilization that if there are any common themes in these essays at all, that they certainly are not the ones Harold Stearns mentions. Rather, Schlesinger hints that the theme is that Americans are "cocksure but bewildered children in a world [they] cannot understand" which is new and constantly changing (168). He feels that overall, each author wrote his or her own opinion and didn't follow a common theme in the true sense of the word. It is apparent to me that the critic has a valid point and his opinion coincides with my own opinion. Stearns may have had a common theme in mind when he organized the writing of Civilization, but it seems as if the authors went a bit off track. Some of the topics discussed in Civilization in the United States were "The Intellectual Life," "The City," "Economic Opinion," "History," "Business," "Engineering," "Politics," "Journalism," and "Philosophy" to name a few. As critic Arthur Schlesinger notes in his review of the book, the topics and authors included in this account of

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Information Systems Strategy at the Toronto Stock Exchange Essay

The exchange industry is undergoing a transformation brought about by globalization of financial markets, consolidation of exchanges, and the introduction of new competitive players due to technological advancements. The Toronto Stock Exchange (TSE) is Canada’s largest equity market and has created and started to implement a plan to deal with these threats. Concurrently, the TSE has been recreating its technological platform, moving from its computer assisted trading system to the Torex system purchased from the Paris Bourse. Implementation problems have delayed the project from its original release date to three years later. During the time frame of this implementation, the TSE suffered several computer glitches causing closure of the exchange for temporary periods of time. The president and CEO needs to review the priorities of the TSE and consider what actions she should take to ensure the successful implementation of this new technology, and the long term alignment of information technology with TSE business strategies. The main issues for the Toronto Stock Exchang (TSE) company has been task of reconstructing the TSE to succeed in the face of significant industry and technological change. The recommendation for this case would be to focus on the security and the problems related to the system TOREX. Indeed, in this domain programs.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Direct Marketing-Facebook Essay

1a) Facebook generates a revenue of 2 billion dollars a year, yes it is free for user to join but that is where they generate there money from. With over 750 million active users Facebook make the majority of their money through advertising. The ads that appear on the right border of the screen. They gather all the information about you and accordingly they let the advertisement that they think you would be interested in appear for you on the screen, more like a tailor-made advertisement. Another way of making money is selling information on users the same way of Google, Google has planned to sell their information but Facebook did not. b) some of the very important features on social networking are User-centric interface for example Facebook’s front page is exemplary for an egocentric user interface. It provides detailed information about updates and notifications of a user and also provides a one-click-interface that makes it easy to update the current status, hide information provided by friends and it updates you about people a user may know or groups or conversations that the user may be interested in. Real time updates, One of the reasons why micro-blogging services have managed to take off over the last years, was their ability to bring the new, â€Å"real-time† dimension to the social interaction on the Web. Different from instant messaging where users were mostly focused on the two-way-conversations, Twitter & Co. delivered many-ways-conversations to the Web. Simple and Usable Forms, Web forms are probably the most important design element for social media and networking sites. Forms and inputs are used in everything from sign-up to search, log-in, replying to a post or adding some other content. Since forms are extremely important, they must be usable. 2) I would defiantly agree to start the loyalty card in my hypermarket. One of the most revenue generating businesses is the super and hypermarkets. I wouldn’t look a lot about the competition the main important thing if I do own a hyper market would be the location of my store, unless I have a good name like Lulu  or Union Coop I wouldn’t open my hyper market next to well known retail hyper market. Every store has its loyal customers, the people who live close to my store will prefer to come to mine than to go somewhere far to buy there needs, people now days tend to look for the easy way, so having a loyalty card is very beneficial for me and would make my customers comfortable and think that out of what they pay they can get something back even if its minor with this loyalty card. I believe that it would be a success because every retail store has got its own loyal customers and for those I can have loyalty cards which will help in keeping them as my customers and not think of going to any of my competitors. 3) it is a part of direct marketing, in-bound and out-bound idea has came up to improve relation ship with customer and try to help in making things easier for them. For example and in-bound call is when a customer calls in it can be an employee that answers â€Å"call center† and the customer gets the chance to ask anything he wants related to that firm can be a product that hes not happy with etc in this case of ADCB it is on call banking so he can ask to debit an amount onto another account or clear a doubt that he had etc. this would let the customer be more comfortable working with this bank and not forgetting how easy it is. Not having to go all the way to the bank branch in order to finish a transaction where you can just get it done in a call. And the better the employees of the call center are with the customers the stronger the relation ship gets between the bank and its customers.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

High Performance Computing Essay Example

High Performance Computing Essay Example High Performance Computing Essay High Performance Computing Essay HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING: DESIGN, BUILD AND BENCHMARK A LINUX CLUSTER by GOH YOKE LOONG KEM 050024 Semester 1 Session 2008/09 Final year research project report submitted to the Faculty of Engineering University of Malaya in partial fulfillment of the requirement to be Bachelor’s degree of Engineering DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ENGINEERING FACULTY UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA October 2008 ABSTRACT Nowadays almost every industry needs fast processing power especially in engineering field. Manipulating high-resolution interactive graphics in engineering, such as in aircraft engine design, has always been a challenge in terms of performance and scalability because of the sheer volume of data involved. [1] Linux clustering is popular in many industries these days. With the advent of clustering technology and the growing acceptance of open source software, supercomputers can now be created for cheaper cost of traditional high-performance machines. Due to these conditions compromise, the number, variety, and specialized configurations of these machines are increasing dramatically with 32 – 128 node clusters being commonplace in science labs. [2] As a result, the intent of this research is to use the latest open source software and computers available in the computer laboratory of Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Malaya to design and build a High Performance Linux Cluster. This paper will present the clustering fundamentals and details of how to setup the cluster. High performance cluster is mostly parallel programming. This paper shows how to run parallel programming with Message Passing Interface (MPI). High-quality implementations for MPI are freely available for FORTRAN, C, and C++ for Linux. In this research, MPICH 2 is used as MPI implementation. Extensive research will be carried out by benchmarking the performance of the cluster with the standard test codes. The results gained will use to compare with the existing clusters. So far, setup of a simple cluster is done and preliminary results are obtained. Further investigation is going on. i TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Abstract Table of Contents List of Figures List of Tables Chapter 1 Introduction 1. 1 Introduction 1. 2 Research Objective Chapter 2 Literature Study 2. 1 What is a Cluster 2. 2 Linux, Open Sources and Cluster 2. 3 High Performance Computing 2. 4 Benchmark of Linux Cluster Chapter 3 Methodology 3. 1 Methodology 3. 2 Work Plan Chapter 4 Problems Faced 4. 1 Operating System 4. 2 Managing Cluster Chapter 5 Preliminary Result 5. 1 Prerequisites 5. 2 Creating a Simple Linux Cluster 5. Testing on Conjugate Gradient Solver List of References Appendix A – Open Sources Location Appendix B – How to Change Hostname on Linux Machines Appendix C – Tabulated Data of Testing on CG Solver Page i ii iii iii 1 1 2 3 3 3 4 5 6 6 8 9 9 9 10 10 11 14 16 17 18 19 ii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2. 2. 1- Logical view of HPC Figure 3. 3. 1- Flow of the project methodology Figure 5. 3. 1- Speedup versus processes for different grid L IST OF TABLES Table 3. 2. 1- Gantt chart of project iii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. 1 INTRODUCTION Computing power and capabilities have been dramatically increased over the years, but none as dramatic as recently. Beforetime mathematical computations were facilitated by lines drawn in the sand. This eventually led to the abacus, the first mechanical device for assisting with mathematics. Much forward time came punch cards which function as a mechanical method to assist with tabulation. Ultimately, this led to ever more complex machines, mechanical and electronic, for computation. Early computers used small toroids to store hundreds or thousands of bits of information in an area the size of a broom closet. Modern computers use silicon to store billions of bits of information in a space not much larger than a postage stamp. However, as computers become more capable, certain constraints still arise. Early computers worked with 8 bits, or bytes, to solve problems. Nowadays, most computers work with 32 bits at a time, with many dealing with 64 bits per operation, which is alike increasing the width of highway. Another method for increasing performance is to increase the clock speed, which is similar to raising the speed limits. So, modern computers are the equivalent of very wide highways with very fast limits. [2] But the way, there are limits to the performance benefits that can be achieved by simply increasing the clock speed or bus width. As a result, supercomputers introduced in the 1960s were designed primarily by Seymour Cray a Control Data Corporation (CDC) as an alternative approach to increasing computer power. [3] Instead of using one computer to solve a problem, why not use many computers, in concert, to solve the same problem? 1 A computer is not just constructed on hardware. There is also the operating system and the software. There have been noteworthy developments in operating systems that will help us in our looking for higher processing power. A fairly recent evolution is Linux, an operating system wrote by a Finnish student name of Linus Torvald in 1991 with very robust multi-user and multi-tasking capabilities. [2] The Linux source code is openly available, allowing a level of control and modification unavailable in a proprietary environment. 1. 2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE The main object of this research project is to design, build and benchmark a Linux cluster for high performance computing purpose. This means that Linux must be utilized as operating system for the cluster construction. Four new and high performance computers in computer laboratory of Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Malaya will be used to build the Linux Cluster. This cluster is going to replace the cluster existing in faculty engineering which is outdated in aspect of hardware and software capabilities. The performance of the cluster will be benchmarked using standard test codes and compared with the performance of the existing clusters. The sub-objectives of the project are: a) Managing a cluster in a production environment with a large user base, job scheduling and monitoring. ) Study on Message Passing Interface (MPI) programming model, a computation comprises one or more processes that communicate by calling library routines to send and receive messages to other process. c) Study on parallel programming to know how to design and build efficient and cost effective programs for parallel computer system based on Amdahl’s Law. 2 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE STUDY 2. 1 WHAT IS A CLUS TER? In its simplest form, a cluster is two or more computers that work together to provide a solution. The idea behinds clusters is to join the computing powers of the nodes involved to provide higher scalability, more combined computing powers, or to build in redundancy to provide higher availability. Clusters of computers must be somewhat self-aware that is the work being done on a specific node often must be coordinated with the work being done on other nodes. Consequently, it makes clusters are complex in connectivity configurations and sophisticated inter-process communications between the nodes. Furthermore, the sharing of data between the nodes of a cluster through a common file system is almost always a requirement. All clusters basically fall into two broad categories: a) High Availability (HA) strive to provide extremely reliable services where the failure of one of or more components (hardware, software, or networking) does not significantly affect the availability of the application being used. b) High Performance Computing (HPC) – designed to provide greater computational power than one computer alone could provide by using parallel computing techniques. [4] 2. 2 LINUX, OPEN SOURCES AND CLUSTERS Linux is being accelerated with high speed development at a faster pace than any operating system in history. The basic idea of open source is very simple: when programmers can read, redistribute, and modify the source code for a piece of software, the software evolves. Operating systems such as Linux, which can be 3 obtained virtually for free, provide a very economical solution to operating system licensing on large numbers of nodes. Besides that, with the familiarity of Linux, there are many tools, utilities, and application available to help build and manage a cluster. Many of these programs are available either for free or for a very reasonable cost. [4] Parallel Application MPI Linux Local Area Network Master Node Interconnect Compute Nodes Cluster Management Tools Figure 2. 2. 1: Logical view of HPC. 2. 3 HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING High-Performance Computing (HPC) is a branch of computer science that focuses on developing supercomputers, parallel processing algorithms and related to software. HPC is very important due to its lower cost and because it is implemented in sectors where distributed parallel computing is needed to: a) Solve large scientific problems Advanced product design Environmental studies (weather prediction and geological studies) Research b) Store and process large amounts of data Data mining Genomics research Internet engine search Image processing [1] 2. 4 BENCHMARK OF LINUX CLUSTER In cluster, benchmarking means measuring the speed with which a cluster system will execute a computing task, in a way that will allow comparison between different hard/software combination. Benchmarking is helpful in understanding how the database manager responds under var ying conditions. [5] Benchmarking is a tedious, repetitive task, and takes attention to details. Normally the results are not what would expect, and subject to interpretation. Benchmarking deals with facts and figures, not opinion or approximation. There are many benchmark programs for HPC. Perhaps the best-known benchmark in technical computing is the LINPACK benchmark. The version of this benchmark that is appropriate for clusters is the High Performance LINPACK (HPL). Obtaining and running this benchmark are relatively easy, though getting good performance can require a significant amount of effort. In addition, while the LINPACK benchmark is widely known, it tends to significantly overestimate the achievable performance for many applications because it involves n3 computation on n2 data and is thus relatively insensitive to the performance of the node memory system. [6] 5 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3. 1 METHODOLOGY Initially, literature review of clusters usage worldwide is compiled and commented. Information on usage of clusters in computer science field worldwide and locally was gathered from online sources such as journals and articles. A concise summary of procedures on how to design and build a cluster is presented and documented. At the same time, study are made on the user guides for Linux which as the operating system of the cluster. Besides that, reviews of cluster’ benchmark will be obtained from online sources. In order to understand the works behind test codes, study on parallel programming models is needed. The first thing to manage is the physical deployment of a cluster. After has fulfilled the minimum hardware requirements, installation of OS on each machine will be carried out by manually. Next, start to decide the free open source software going to use for the cluster construction and download them from internet. The setup procedures will then be explained and documented to illustrate the method of building cluster for 4 Linux machines. This includes preliminary tests. After cluster is build, benchmarking for cluster will be carried out. The experimental data for different test codes provided by supervisor and from internet such as LINPACK and in house codes will be recorded systematically to enable comparison cluster’s performance with others existing clusters to be made. The data collected will be tabulated and relevant graphs plotted. Next, the results will be critically analyzed. Finally, a conclusion is made based on the experimental result. At the meantime, improvement of cluster performance will be done on the job scheduling and monitoring. 6 Literature review on history and current usage of cluster Study on user guides of Linux Reviews on cluster’s benchmark Study on parallel programming models Physical deployment of the cluster Installation of OS (CentOS 5) on each machine Setup the Linux Cluster Benchmarking the Linux Cluster Improve the Linux Cluster Analysis of results Discussion and conclusion Figure 3. 3. 1: Flow of the project methodology 7 10% Analysis Improvement Introduction to Titles of Final Year Project 15% 0% Discussion conclusion Benchmarking Preparation of report and presentation 100% 10% Setup cluster Installation of OS Physical deployment Study on parallel programming Reviews on benchmarking Study on Linux user’s guide 3. 2 WORK PLAN Literature review on cluster Schedule MONTH 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 JULY’08 AUG’08 SEPT’08 OCT’08 NOV’08 DEC’08 JAN’09 WEEK 100% 100% 60% FEB’09 MAR’09 APR’09 Table 3. 2. 1: Gantt chart of project 100% 100% Today 25% 8 CHAPTER 4 PROBLEM S FACED 4. 1 OPERATING SYSTEM Problem In the early, OS (Centos5) installation kit provided by supervisor is 32 bits but currently machine running is based on AMD Opteron system which is able to support 64 bits system. This means that the usage and performance of the machines existing did not optimize. Solution Centos5. 2 for 64 bits is downloaded. 2 more machines will be installed for OS 64 bits. A comparison between performance of cluster for 32 bits and 64 bits system will be carried out. 4. MANAGING CLUSTER Problem When it comes to managing a cluster in a production environment with a large user base, job scheduling and monitoring are crucial. In order to do so, Rocks Cluster will be build. On the frontend node (head note), at least two ethernet interfaces are required but machine just has only one ethernet interface. Solution A ethernet interface (network card) has bought and now waiting for technician to open the locked CPU’s casing for installation. 9 CHAPTER 5 PRELIMINARY RESULT 5. 1 PREREQUISITES Node Hardware 4 machines have the following setup each: Processor: 2nd- Generation AMD Opteron 2. 0Ghz, 1MB L2 Cache per core. RAM: 2GB DDR2-667 MHz non-ECC Hard drive: 80GB 7200 SATA 3Gb/s NCQ Network: Integrated Broadcom 5755 10/100/1000 LAN Switch: D-Link 5-Ports 10/100Mbps desktop switch Software For the defaults installation are needed: a) A copy of the latest distribution, mpich2-1. 0. 7. tar. gz b) GNU C complier c) GNU FORTRAN, C++ and JAVA compiler if wish to write or execute MPI program in any of these languages. d) Python 2. 2 or later version, for building the default process management system, MPD. e) Setup Password-less SSH. f) Any one of UNIX operating systems, in this case CentOS 5. (one of the family of LINUX) is used. Configure will check for the prerequisites and some of dependencies will be needed to complete the ins tallation. Details to obtain the open sources software are provided in Appendix A. 10 5. 2 CREATING A SIMPLE LINUX CLUSTER Here are the steps from using MPICH2 and 4 sets of regular Linux machines to build bare-bones systems of a simple Linux Cluster. Step 1 GCC complier is installed. # rpm –Uvh gcc-4. 1. 2-42. el5. i386. rpm Follow by Gfortran, C++ and Java complier. There are needed dependencies to complete the installation. Refers to Appendix A) Step 2 Start to install the MPICH2. The tar file is unpacked in the directory home/ab01/ libraries. # tar xfz mpich2-1. 0. 7. tar. gz Now, that directory is contained a subdirectory named mpich2-1. 0. 7 Step 3 The installation directory is chose. # mkdir /home/ab01/mpich2-install Step 4 MPICH is configured, the installation directory is specified, and the configure script is ran in the source directory. # . /configure –prefix=home/ab01/mpich2-install 21 | tee configure. log Step 5 MPICH2 is build. # make 21 | make. log [6] 1 1 Step 6 MPICH is installed. # make install 21 | install. og All required executables and scripts in the bin subdirectory of the directory specified by the prefix argument to configure are collected by this step. Step 7 The bin subdirectory of the installation directory is added to the path by added command below in file etc/bashrc: PATH=/home/ab01/mpich2-install/bin:$PATH ; export PATH Step 8 Everything is checked in order at this point by doing # which mpd # which mpiexec # which mpicc Step 9 The default process manager is called MPD, which is ring of daemons on the machines where run the MPI programs. In next few steps, mpd is rang up and tested. A file named mpd. conf (/etc/. mpd. conf if user) is created by: # cd/etc # vi mpd. conf press ‘a’ then type â€Å"secretword=hpcluster†, press â€Å"ESC† and type â€Å":x† to save and exit. The file is made readable and writable only by root user. # chmod 600 mpd. conf Step 10 Bringing up a ring of one mpd on the local machine, testing one mpd command, and bringing the â€Å"ring† down is checked as first sanity. # mpd # mpdtrace # mpdallexit Step 12 A ring of mpd is brought up on a set of machines. A file named mpd. hosts is created consisting of a list of machine names, one per line and located it in root directory. These hostnames will be used as targets for ssh or rsh, so include full domain names if necessary. Steps to permanent change hostname of Linux machines are provided in Appendix B. To reach these machines with ssh or rsh without entering a password is tested by doing # ssh othermachine hostname or IP address Step 13 The daemons on the hosts in the file mpd. hosts is started by # mpdboot –n Step 14 There are some examples in the install directory mpich2-1. 0. 7/examples. One of the cpi example, which computes the value of tested by # mpiexec –n 4 cpi The value and wall time is shown after finish executed. Vary numbers of machines was tested in this example. After all of the above steps are completed, this means that MPICH2 has been successfully installed. The Linux cluster is ready to run others MPI programs and benchmarking for its performance. by numerical integration in parallel is 12 13 5. 3 TESTING ON CONJUGATE GRADIENT SOLVER Description of solver: This is an incomplete Cholesky pre-conditioned conjugate gradient solver for symmetric matrices (e. g. pressure or pressure-correction equation, heat conduction, etc. ), for multi processor run. For preconditioning matrix, parallelization technique follows that of Ferziger Peric (2004) for SIP. The rest of the codes utilize loop distribution. Purpose of Testing: Obtain the wall clock time required to solve the problem with different numbers of processor run on it. Wall clock time or wall time is a measure of how much real time that elapses from start to end, including time that passes due to programmed (artificial) delays or waiting for resources to become available. In computing, wall clock time is the actual time taken by a computer to complete a task. Results obtained use to plot speedup versus processor graph and then analyzed on it. Result of Testing: Speedup versus Compute nodes with different Grid 2. 5 2 speedup ,S 1. 5 1 0. 5 Case 1 i=100; resmax=1E-20; Grid=64x64x64 Case 2 i=100; resmax=1E-20;Grid 128x128x128 Case 3 i=100; resmax=1E-15; Grid 256x256x256 0 0 1 2 processes,N 3 4 5 Figure 5. 3. 1: Speedup versus processes for different grid 14 Discussion on Testing Result: As shown in the graph, there is a speedup around 1. 4 on 2 processes in case 1 and the tabulated data are provided in Appendix C. However, the declines of speedup are occurred at 3 and 4 processes. When the increasing communication time needed is more than the decreasing computing time with more processes, for overall, wall clock time will be slightly increased than before. Time to transfer data between processes is usually the most significant source of parallel processing overhead. There is no improvement result on 3 processes in case 2. Parallel processing overhead occurred at this point because impossible to distribute the subtask workload equally to each processor when there are 3 processes working on it. That means at some points, all but one processes might be done and waiting for one process to complete. This phenomenon called imbalance load. Also shown in the graph, case 3 has a normal speedup curve. There is a speedup around 2 for 4 processes which is quite low. Amdahl’s Law states that if P is the proportion of a program that can be made parallel, and (1 ? P) is the proportion that cannot be parallelized (remains serial), then the maximum speedup that can be achieved by using N processes is [8] 1 1? + = Maximum speedup in this case is 2 then the proportion of this conjugate gradient solver that can be made parallel will be 0. 66. This also means that there has 34% of program run in serial. 15 LIST OF REFERENCES 1. High Performance Linux Clustering, Part 1: Build a Working Cluster, Oct 2005, Aditya Narayan, Founder, QCD Microsystems, United State of America, viewed 2 August 2008, 2. Linux HPC Cluster Installation, June 2001, IBM International Technical Support Organization , Lius Ferreira, Gregory Kettemann, United State of America, viewed 18 July 2008, 3. Supercomputer, July 2008, Wikipedia, viewed 10 Oct 2008, 4. Linux Clustering with CSM and GPFS, January 2004, IBM International Technical Support Organization, Stephen Hochstetler, Bob Beringer, United State of America, viewed 20 July 2008, 5. Bechmarking, April 2007, Wikipedia, viewed 10 Oct 2008, 6. High Performance Linux Clustering, Part 2: Build a Working Cluster, Oct 2005, Aditya Narayan, Founder, QCD Microsystems, United State of America, viewed 2 August 2008, 7. MPICH2 Installer Guide version 1. 0. 7, April 2008, Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonnne National Laboratory, U. S Department of Energy, viewed 10 August 2008. 8. Amdahl’s Law, Dec 2007, Wikepedia, viewed 20 Oct 2008 16 APPENDIX A Open Sources Location 1) OS-Centos 5 for 32bits and 64bits Source: 2) GCC, Gfortran, C++ and Java complier Source: cd/dvd of installer Centos 5 Name: a) b) c) d) gcc-4. 1. 2-42. el5. i386. rpm gcc-gfortran-4. 1. 2-42. el5. i386. rpm gcc-c++-4. 1. 2-42. el5. i386. rpm gcc-java-4. 1. 2-42. el5. i386. rpm Dependencies required Source: cd/dvd of installer Centos 5 Name: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) glibc-devel-2. 5-18. i386. rpm glibc-devel-2. 5-24. i386. pm glibc-headers-2. 5-18. i386. rpm glib-java-0. 2. 6-3. fc6. i386. rpm libgcj-devel-4. 1. 2-14. el5. i386. rpm libgfortran-4. 1. 2-14. el5. i386. rpm libgomp-4. 1. 2-14. el5. i386. rpm libstdc++-devel-4. 1. 2-14. el5. i386. rpm 3) MPICH2 version 1. 0. 7 Source: 4) How to setup password-less SSH using Public – Private Keys 17 APPENDIX B How to change the Hostname of a Linux system Permanent hostname change Step 1: Editing hostname file in /etc/sysconfig/network. In Linux machine etc/sysconfig/network file look like this: NETWORKING = yes NETWORKING_1PV6=no HOSTNAME=hpcluster1 The hostname in etc/sysconfig/network have changed to from original to hpcluster1, hpcluster2, hpcluster3, hpcluster4 accordingly on each machine. Step 2: The older hostname listed in /etc/hosts file were changed to new hostname manually. Step 3: After that Linux machines is reboot. Network service is restarted before rebooting by # /etc/init. d/network restart Hostname on each machine was changed to specified name and can be function properly. 18 APPENDIX C Tabulated Data of Testing on CG Solver Case 1 i=100; resmax=1E-20; Grid=64x64x64 N T1 T2 AVE 1 2 3 4 22. 1375 16. 0003 20. 272 20. 9793 22. 2508 16. 3247 20. 2426 20. 691 22. 19415 16. 1625 20. 2573 20. 9742 Speed Up 1 1. 3732 1. 0956 1. 0582 Table C. 1 : Data for case 1. Case 2 i=100; resmax=1E-20;Grid 128x128x128 N T1 T2 AVE Speed Up 1 248. 3205 245. 6234 246. 97195 1 2 129. 9253 131. 2424 130. 58385 1. 8913 3 129. 9289 128. 8646 129. 39675 1. 9086 4 110. 3437 111. 3847 110. 8642 2. 2277 Table C. 2 : Data for case 2. Case 3 i=1 00; resmax=1E-15; Grid 256x256x256 N T1 T2 AVE Speedup 1 1538. 1186 1536. 8205 1537. 46955 1 2 1023. 5759 1022. 2592 1022. 91755 1. 503 3 837. 1469 840. 9828 839. 06485 1. 8324 4 773. 0982 770. 9155 772. 00685 1. 9915 Table C. 3 : Data for case 3. = 19

Monday, October 21, 2019

Free Essays on Humans Are Sscared

Humans are scared of what they don’t understand, and so in a way to try and understand the world around them, humans made up gods. Gods are a simple way of answering any question, and humans all throughout history have made up gods and/or supreme beings such as the Greeks did. The ancient Greeks developed a religion and beliefs about the world that we now call Greek Mythology. Mythology is a body of myths for a particular culture, and the study and interpretations of such myths. Myths though can be defined as a narrative that through many retellings has become an accepted tradition in a society. By this mythology may include all traditional tales, such as creation of the world and about the gods that rule the world. One such god was Persephone the queen of the under world, married to Hades the god of the under world. Persephone is the daughter of Demeter (god of agriculture) and Zeus (the king God). She is a very beautiful young girl with pale white skin and blond hair. She is so beautiful that many of the gods wished to have her as their wife. She does not smile much though and is very sorrowful when she is in the underworld with her husband, but she is very happy and joyful when she is on earth with her loving mother Demeter. As I mentioned earlier, mythology is all about myth or stories about the gods. One story that involves Persephone is the story about how she became queen of the underworld. Demeter loved Persephone so dearly that she always had her at her side, and whenever Demeter visited the earth Persephone would follow. She would go about the fields dancing and wherever her light feet touched the ground flowers would emerge. Hades, though, soon noticed her and fell in love with her immediately. He knew though that Demeter would never allow it because she would not be able to bare to part with her dear daughter. Hades though found another way to get her as her wife. He planned to abduct her one-day when she was about d... Free Essays on Humans Are Sscared Free Essays on Humans Are Sscared Humans are scared of what they don’t understand, and so in a way to try and understand the world around them, humans made up gods. Gods are a simple way of answering any question, and humans all throughout history have made up gods and/or supreme beings such as the Greeks did. The ancient Greeks developed a religion and beliefs about the world that we now call Greek Mythology. Mythology is a body of myths for a particular culture, and the study and interpretations of such myths. Myths though can be defined as a narrative that through many retellings has become an accepted tradition in a society. By this mythology may include all traditional tales, such as creation of the world and about the gods that rule the world. One such god was Persephone the queen of the under world, married to Hades the god of the under world. Persephone is the daughter of Demeter (god of agriculture) and Zeus (the king God). She is a very beautiful young girl with pale white skin and blond hair. She is so beautiful that many of the gods wished to have her as their wife. She does not smile much though and is very sorrowful when she is in the underworld with her husband, but she is very happy and joyful when she is on earth with her loving mother Demeter. As I mentioned earlier, mythology is all about myth or stories about the gods. One story that involves Persephone is the story about how she became queen of the underworld. Demeter loved Persephone so dearly that she always had her at her side, and whenever Demeter visited the earth Persephone would follow. She would go about the fields dancing and wherever her light feet touched the ground flowers would emerge. Hades, though, soon noticed her and fell in love with her immediately. He knew though that Demeter would never allow it because she would not be able to bare to part with her dear daughter. Hades though found another way to get her as her wife. He planned to abduct her one-day when she was about d...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Understanding the Significance of Pandoras Box

Understanding the Significance of Pandora's Box A Pandoras box is a metaphor in our modern languages, and the proverbial phrase refers to a source of endless complications or trouble arising from a single, simple miscalculation. Pandoras story comes to us from ancient Greek mythology, specifically a set of epic poems by Hesiod, called the Theogony and Works and Days. Written during the 7th century BC, these poems relate how the gods came to create Pandora and how the  gift Zeus gave her ultimately ends the Golden Age of humankind. The Story of Pandoras Box According to Hesiod, Pandora was a curse on mankind as retribution after the Titan Prometheus stole fire and gave it to humans. Zeus had Hermes hammer the first human woman- Pandora- out of the earth. Hermes made her lovely as a goddess, with the gift of speech to tell lies, and the mind and nature of a treacherous dog. Athena dressed her in silvery clothing and taught her weaving; Hephaestus crowned her with a marvelous golden diadem of animals and sea creatures; Aphrodite poured grace on her head and desire and cares to weaken her limbs. Pandora was to be the first of a race of women, the first bride and a great misery who would live with mortal men as companions only in times of plenty, and desert them when times became difficult. Her name means both she who gives all gifts and she who was given all gifts. Never let it be said that Greeks had any use for women in general. All the Ills of the World Then Zeus sent this beautiful treachery as a gift to Prometheus brother Epimetheus, who ignored Prometheuss advice to never accept gifts from Zeus. In the house of Epimetheus, there was a jar- in some versions, it too was a gift from Zeus- and because of her insatiable greedy womans curiosity, Pandora lifted the lid on it. Out from the jar flew every trouble known to humanity. Strife, sickness, toil  and myriad other ills escaped from the jar to afflict men and women forever more. Pandora managed to keep one spirit in the jar as she shut the lid, a timid sprite named Elpis, usually translated as hope. Box, Casket or Jar? But our modern phrase says Pandoras box: how did that happen? Hesiod said the evils of the world were kept in a pithos, and that was uniformly employed by all Greek writers in telling the myth until the 16th century AD. Pithoi are huge storage jars that are typically partly buried in the ground. The first reference to something other than a pithos comes from the 16th-century writer Lilius Giraldus of Ferrara, who in 1580 used the word pyxis (or casket) to refer to the holder of evils opened by Pandora. Although the translation was not exact, it is a meaningful error, because a pyxis is a whited sepulcher, a beautiful fraud. Eventually, the casket became simplified as box.   Harrison (1900) argued that this mistranslation explicitly removed the Pandora myth from its association with All Souls Day, or rather the Athenian version, the festival of Anthesteria. The two-day drinking festival involves opening wine casks on the first day (the Pithoigia), releasing the souls of the dead; on the second day, men anointed their doors with pitch and chewed blackthorn to keep the newly released souls of the departed away. Then the casks were sealed again. Harrisons argument is bolstered by the fact that Pandora is a cult name of the great goddess Gaia. Pandora is not just any willful creature, she is the personification of Earth itself; both Kore and Persephone, made from the earth and rising from the underworld. The pithos connects her to the earth, the box or casket minimizes her importance. The Meaning of the Myth Hurwit (1995) says that the myth explains why humans must work to survive, that Pandora represents the beautiful figure of dread, something for which men can find no device or remedy. The quintessential woman was created to beguile men with her beauty and uncontrollable sexuality, to introduce falsehood and treachery and disobedience into their lives. Her task was to let loose all the evils upon the world  while trapping hope, unavailable to mortal men. Pandora is a trick gift, a punishment for the good of Promethean fire, she is, in fact, Zeuss price of fire. Brown points out that Hesiods story of Pandora is the icon of archaic Greek ideas of sexuality and economics. Hesiod didnt invent Pandora, but he did adapt the story to show that Zeus was the supreme being who shaped the world and caused the misery of the human lot, and how that caused human descent from the original bliss of a carefree existence. Pandora and Eve At this point, you may recognize in Pandora the story of the Biblical Eve. She too was the first woman, and she too was responsible for destroying an innocent, all-male Paradise and unleashing suffering ever after. Are the two related? Several scholars including Brown and Kirk argue that the Theogony was based on Mesopotamian tales, although blaming a woman for all the evils of the world is definitely more Greek than Mesopotamian. Both Pandora and Eve may well share a similar source. Sources Edited and updated by K. Kris Hirst Brown AS. 1997. Aphrodite and the Pandora Complex. The Classical Quarterly 47(1):26-47.Harrison JE. 1900. Pandoras Box. The Journal of Hellenic Studies 20:99-114.Hurwit JM. 1995. Beautiful Evil: Pandora and the Athena Parthenos. American Journal of Archaeology 99(2):171-186.Kirk GS. 1972. Greek Mythology: Some New Perspectives. The Journal of Hellenic Studies 92:74-85.Wolkow BM. 2007. The Mind of a Bitch: Pandoras Motive and Intent in the Erga. Hermes 135(3):247-262.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

647 W5 assign Fish Bone Diagram Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

647 W5 assign Fish Bone Diagram - Essay Example 183). The diagram was noted to be useful during brain storming sessions, as well as in investigating the root cause of how the particular event turned out that way. Through scrutinizing sequence of transpired endeavors in clearly categorized elements, the diagram eventually assists in illuminating the cause and the ultimate effect/s of a challenging situation (American Society for Quality (ASQ), n.d.). The example of the fish bone diagram is shown in the figure below: The fish bone tool can be used in project management through enabling project managers and the project management team to accurately identify potential risks in various facets of the project. As emphasized, there are â€Å"three categories of project risk are controllable known risks, uncontrollable known risks, and unknown risks†¦ Root cause analysis not only makes known project risks more understandable but also shows you how to manage each risk† (Kendrick, 2003, pp. 184-185). Thus, the fish bone tool enables enhancing awareness of project risks in various categories to develop strategies that would mitigate and manage these risks. The fish bone tool is created following these prescribed six (6) steps: â€Å"(1) Draw Problem Statement; (2) Draw Major Cause Categories; (3) Brainstorm Causes; (4) Categorize Causes; (5) Determine Deeper Causes; and (6) Identify Root Causes† (Fishbone Diagram Cause and Effect Analysis, 2015). For the problem that was encountered by Great University (GU) in the previous paper, the system failure could be more closely evaluated using the fish bone diagram. The diagram is created with the six (6) steps and shown below: Under brainstorming stage, the project manager and team members could think of all possible causes of the system failure using the major categories. These causes could be as simple, deep, bizarre, unique, or diverse, as members of the project team could think of. These causes could be voluminous and thus, should be streamlined according to

Horror movie- Man versus monsters Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Horror movie- Man versus monsters - Essay Example An all-time rival of Mr. James Devin- The neighbor of Mr. James who also does fishing. Martha- An old superstitious neighbor of Mr. James. She is a widower who lives alone with her numerous cats. Plot The movie starts with Mr. James on the lake in his boat. It is late in the afternoon and Mr. James is fatigued with the day’s work. He harms his usual favorite tune as he goes about his final fishing of the day. Devin, his childhood friend and a neighbor, is watching from the sides of the lake as he smokes tobacco from his pot. Somehow Mr. James’ vessel stops to move and he does not understand why. He tries to speed up the engine but all is in vain as the boat rocks up and down from the forming waves in the lake but does not move a single inch forward. From the shores of the lake, Devin spots the mayhem that is going on in the lake. He stands up and looks on more keenly and closely. He discovers that Mr. James is indeed in some kind of a limbo and that not all is well with him. He shouts at the top of his voice inquiring on how Mr. James is faring. His voice is however drowned by the sound of the roaring engine of the vessel which Mr. James is trying to speed up so as to get off the stuck position. â€Å"James, are you alright?† shouts Devin over and over again. After struggling with the vessel for some four or so minutes, Mr. James decides to find out what is getting the vessel stuck and to deal with it at once. Over the years of his fishing endeavors, Mr. James has come about such instances but every time the vessel would veer off the path of whatever was getting it stuck if the engine was speeded up. This does not seem to work this time round and it got Mr. James a little bit nervous. As Mr. James approaches the side of the boat to check out the state of the water surrounding the boat, the entire vessel is abruptly lifted up and it comes down tumbling in the water in a capsizing position. Devin gets all jittery as he is helplessly watching Mr. James going into the water with his head first. Mr. James has been brought up near the lake and he has very perfect swimming skills. He drops into the water and recollects his senses, then immediately tries to come up above the level of the water and swim to the shore. He feels something pulling his leg down in a manner that would definitely get to drown him. He uses his left foot to kick the foreign creature that is pulling him down. The first sight of the monster flashes on the screen for seconds as it is shown receiving the kick blow from Mr. James and letting him loose. As proposed by Kleeblatt (58), this is a perfect way of introducing a key element in a film. Apparently, Mr. James gets to kick the monster in his left eye and it loses its composure. Devin jumps into the water and helps James as he is swimming outside. They get to the shore and both can not tell what exactly has attacked them. The winds drive the James’ boat to the shoreline and it spends the night th ere unmanned. James and his neighbor Devin go home with no fish and with very frightened faces. Soon, the story of the ordeal that has happened at the lake gets to the entire locality. People have mixed reactions concerning the story. Most of the people find it difficult to believe that the story has indeed happens. Some believe in it partially, but still leave some room for doubt. The James’ old neighbor Martha is among those who have a very weird explanation of the ordeal. She believs that the story

Friday, October 18, 2019

Choose a global business and critically analyse the organisational Assignment

Choose a global business and critically analyse the organisational structure adopted by the company since 2008. Investigate the - Assignment Example Be it television or radio or video recorder or walkman. Sony Corporation is headquartered in Tokyo. It is a global player and has extended in many countries serving millions of customers across the globe. It is the leading manufacturer and the marketer of audio, communications, video and information technology for the customers and for the professional market all over the world. They have also diversified in the financial sector by giving financial services like insurance and banking to their customers. It always gave emphasis on the strategy that they are implementing for the success of their business. The success of Sony was possible through an exceptional vision â€Å"To experience the joy of advancing and applying technology for the benefit of the public" (Hill, 2011). Sony saw its success globally due to the influence that it had on the Japanese habits and culture and penetrated the global market by operating in â€Å"the Japanese way†. 2. Sony Corporation In 1946, the J apanese electrical engineers Masaru Ibuka and Akio Morita created their company Sony Corporation with only 20 employees in Tokyo. Now in 2013 the number of employees has gone up to 1,68,300. The figure makes it clear that even a small company can have its first product placed successfully in the Japanese market. The sale of electronic goods then heated up the market and thus Sony started to expand its business globally after their success in Japanese market (Hill C., 2010). The two founders in 1953 went for a three months long business tour to Europe and America where they signed agreement with the US companies and European companies and thus they penetrated into the American and European market. Later it has expanded its business to Africa and India. Sony has served both the market with their expanding business units and their products (Sony Corporation, 2013c). 3. Sony going Global Sony expanded globally with the following aim and strategies: a) Visionary Leadership: They expanded internationally with the aim to lead one vision and make a group which is flexible and efficient enough to capture the global market by learning their local customers. b) Organizational process: They wanted to spread the awareness of their products through the Global Information Systems and Communication. They even set the Research and Development Team for their long term survival so that they can develop their products as the market requires. c) Organizational Culture: Sony formed a multicultural organisation and thus it made it easy for the employees to work in such a friendly environment with no pressure for the following a particular culture. They standardized their products uniquely. d) Customized products: They even customized the products according to the customer need and this unique strategy gave them a bigger platform in the bigger market. Example: Sony laptop keyboards contain the currency signs which are different for the different countries. 3.1. Strategies undertaken by Sony Strategies that are taken in the global context are the plan of the company to position their products positively in the markets so that they stay ahead of their competitors. Sony Corporation thus made different strategies for the different markets so that they can position their products to the customers. Their corporate strategy is to lead as the global provider of electronics and entertainment. In 2008 the company came up with new strategies whose main aim was to refresh their

Code of Ethics Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Code of Ethics - Research Paper Example The issues have always been whether to disclose such information and to whom. For instance, is it proper to place critical loggers on devices on the network to capture all that the user types? Or say so as to see all that is shown screen capture programs those are some of privacy ethical issues that have been of concern. The other ethical issue has been promising more than they can deliver or even taking advantage of client’s ignorance to charge more fees through data manipulation. Today, IT organization can install technology to make client’s network more secure but not very secure in reality. Yet there has been the dilemma of whether to replace the present firewall just to have more billable hours. Some firms promising more than they can actually achieve to gain reputation. The final loyalty has been connected to loyalty. IT organizations with contacts for multiple clients have ethical issues to deal with. For example, should they obtain information about one of their clients that can directly affect the other client, where should their loyalty

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Abstinence Only vs. Comprehensive Education in Teen Pregnancy Essay

Abstinence Only vs. Comprehensive Education in Teen Pregnancy - Essay Example According to studies that were aimed at providing scientific evidence for evaluation and decision making with regard to preventing teenage pregnancy for the whole nation; it was concluded by specialists that the sex education in teen pregnancy approach is efficient and effective in curbing teenage pregnancy as compared to abstinence only. The relationship between sex education, teen pregnancy and birth rates need to be taught to the teens if the situation is to be salvaged (Stanger-Hall and Hall, 2011). Consequently, other critical influences like socio-economic status, education, cultural activities, and access to contraceptives through Medicaid waivers should be critically analyzed. However, this is not taken into consideration across the nation; the emphasis are on abstinence laws rather than sex education. The teen pregnancy, abortion and birth data significantly shows that higher levels of abstinence education strongly culminates into higher levels of abstinence character hence resulting into decreased pregnancies among teenagers (Stanger-Hall and Hall, 2011). In the same line of argument, other factors as earlier mentioned impact severely on teenage pregnancy. For instance educational attainment, Ethnic composition, and socio-economic status have a hand in either alleviating or aggravating the situation. Medicaid waivers for family planning have been found to significantly reduce unplanned pregnancies especially among low income women and among teenagers (Stanger-Hall and Hall, 2011). Through comprehensive research and analysis it has been established that although elaborate sex education in the US has resulted in lower teen pregnancy rates, these rates are still high as compared to teen pregnancy levels in Europe. This is mainly associated with poor laws and policies that do not advocate for sex and STD education to

Read one artical from regarding upcoming legislative Article

Read one artical from regarding upcoming legislative Session ) and answer 3 questions in attach file - Article Example By being informed an educator can either chose to weigh in on one side or the other. Additionally, as being an educator, your opinion is valued and it is necessary to be aware of the changes that are taking place within the field as well as have an opinion one way or the other. As a function of being aware of this issue, it is my responsibility to form an opinion as to which side I support in the battle for school choice. Although both sides have salient points which bear repeating, it is without question that enabling school choice will further disenfranchise a large number of at risk and less fortunate children while serving to further help those that are in the least need of help. Bluey, Rob. "VIDEO: The Future Is Brighter With School Choice." The Foundry: Conservative Policy News Blog from The Heritage Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Oct. 2012.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Abstinence Only vs. Comprehensive Education in Teen Pregnancy Essay

Abstinence Only vs. Comprehensive Education in Teen Pregnancy - Essay Example According to studies that were aimed at providing scientific evidence for evaluation and decision making with regard to preventing teenage pregnancy for the whole nation; it was concluded by specialists that the sex education in teen pregnancy approach is efficient and effective in curbing teenage pregnancy as compared to abstinence only. The relationship between sex education, teen pregnancy and birth rates need to be taught to the teens if the situation is to be salvaged (Stanger-Hall and Hall, 2011). Consequently, other critical influences like socio-economic status, education, cultural activities, and access to contraceptives through Medicaid waivers should be critically analyzed. However, this is not taken into consideration across the nation; the emphasis are on abstinence laws rather than sex education. The teen pregnancy, abortion and birth data significantly shows that higher levels of abstinence education strongly culminates into higher levels of abstinence character hence resulting into decreased pregnancies among teenagers (Stanger-Hall and Hall, 2011). In the same line of argument, other factors as earlier mentioned impact severely on teenage pregnancy. For instance educational attainment, Ethnic composition, and socio-economic status have a hand in either alleviating or aggravating the situation. Medicaid waivers for family planning have been found to significantly reduce unplanned pregnancies especially among low income women and among teenagers (Stanger-Hall and Hall, 2011). Through comprehensive research and analysis it has been established that although elaborate sex education in the US has resulted in lower teen pregnancy rates, these rates are still high as compared to teen pregnancy levels in Europe. This is mainly associated with poor laws and policies that do not advocate for sex and STD education to

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Israeli military calculations towards iran Essay

Israeli military calculations towards iran - Essay Example Iran is also perceived by Israel to be offensive as it supports militant and terrorist groups that oppose Israel rule and existence. These groups are given financial help and military training and they include Palestine Islamic jihad and Hezbollah which threatens the security of Israel. The outrageous statements uttered by Iranian leaders and which are supported by the neighboring Arab countries clearly indicate that Iran is committed to ensuring that the state of Israel faces many problems ranging from terrorism to destruction of the whole nation. For example, Ahmedinejaad the president of Iran has denied holocaust and has threatened to wipe Israel from the map and has characterized Israel as an artificial state whose end is near. This verbal attacks are meant to enhance the primacy of Iran has a powerful country in the region, something Israel considers to be a threat to its security. Meanwhile in Israel the government is under pressure with how it is handling the terrorist groups, their continuous firing of rockets toward Israel and how the events are related to Iran’s outbursts. This pressure is revealed in the Sunday times newspaper which says that Israel has been preparing to attack Iran’s nuclear sites using nuclear weapons because the sites are heavily protected by thick rocks. To make sure that this happens, Israel president has appointed right wing politicians for example Lieberman and Effie Eitem who believe that all Israel enemies have to be subdued. However, USA the main ally of Israel has given mixed issue to Iranian issued.USA asserts that it will not allow Iran to have nuclear weapons but the chances of giving such approval are not there at the moment. USA is ready to strike Iran as long as there is believable intelligence evidence that it has weaponized its uranium programs. Attacking Iranian nuclear require complex planning because most targets are far

Monday, October 14, 2019

Functions of Emotions Essay Example for Free

Functions of Emotions Essay By definition, emotions are short-lived phenomena in the psychological and physiological systems of rational beings that represent modes of adaptation to the dynamism of the internal and external environment (Fiske, Gilbert Lindzey, 2010). Emotions are responsible for psychologically altering the attention and shifting behaviors in response to changing demands. They are therefore very instrumental in not only defining inter-personal relationships but also the lives of rational beings (Lewis, Haviland-Jones Barret, 2008). In this research paper, the author seeks to explain and describe the social functions of emotions in a relationship. I will first identify the emotions that relate to relationships and then proceed to explain the functions they play. Examples of emotions that apply to relationships Emotions are complex and intricately related. There has been confusion in the usage of terms between emotions and feelings while the two are not synonymous. The word â€Å"Feelings† can be used to describe the sensitivity to emotions or morals. In other words, feeling is the passion or sensation of emotions and is therefore a component of emotion (Fiske, Gilbert Lindzey, 2010). Each emotion leads to the exhibition of a corresponding set of behaviors, both in the movement of the body (emotional expression through skeletal muscles) and in other responses that do not include physical movements. In the context of relationships, very many emotions apply. To every emotion there is an opposite. Examples of emotions which are applicable in the development of interpersonal relationships include love and passion which are contradicted by hatred and disgust and happiness which is contradicted by the emotion of sadness. Pride as an emotion plays a significant role in the development of relationships between parents and their children, between lovers and also between casual acquaintances (Lewis, Haviland-Jones Barret, 2008). Jealousy, gratefulness and empathy also play a major role in relationships. Emotions and the Capacity to communicate and influence people Emotions are communicated through verbal statements and non-verbal statements including facial expressions, postures or gestures. Most expressions of emotions have a direct and automatic effect on other people, and more so if these emotions are communicated non-verbally. The human conscience is programmed to naturally decode emotions in the action of other people (Fussell, 2002). Therefore, how well a person expresses his or her emotions goes a long way in determining how well other people understand him. People will usually respond to facial expressions and other gestures. Being able to effectively communicate one’s emotions so that they are representative of the feelings held inside plays a major role in either strengthening or weakening the relationship bonds between people. A person who relays his feelings (through emotions) genuinely is less likely to be misunderstood and is therefore more likely to get positive responses to his demands or requirements (Fussell, 2002). Take for example a person whose face lights up upon seeing another person. Such will definitely be interpreted as a reaction to the emotion of love or passion. Upon decoding this, the targeted party is also likely to develop affection for the other person. Strong relationships are founded on how genuinely people communicate their emotions (Knobloch Solomon, 2003). Emotions are also useful in influencing the actions of others. Disappointment, for example in a parent for his or her underperforming child can trigger the urge to work harder in school so as to please the parent (Dunsmorea, Bensona Bradburna, 2006). However, constant disappointment in people despite their exhibited desire to improve damages relationships as it induces guilt and shame. In other words, positive emotions most of the time build a relationship and negative emotions like anger, fear, sadness and disappointment will tend to destroy a relationship. Emotions negatively or positively impact on how people process information. They comprise an integral part of interpersonal communication and therefore define how people negotiate with other people or groups (Perlman, 2007). It is the relational problems an individual faces which give rise to emotions and emotions therefore become important in relationships as they define the way the individual navigates though the challenges that arise in the process of relating to other people. Emotions as a motivating factor The human psychological and physiological faculties are pre-programmed to automatically obey or respond to emotions (Fiske, Gilbert Lindzey, 2010). Emotions on their part prepare and motivate people to act in a specific manner. For example, the emotion of love will prompt its bearer to show the person he or she is in love with the actions which will illustrate his or her passion. Perhaps love is the most instrumental emotion in relationships. It is love which makes people to be concerned with the welfare of other people in their environment and triggers responsible behavior that ensures the society moves towards a state in which the welfare of everyone within that specific society is protected (Perlman, 2007). Another example of emotions playing a part in relationship building is in the way they trigger actions which signify goodwill (Ryff Singer, 2001). If a person sees his neighbor’s toddler moving towards danger, say in the path of traffic, he or she will feel obliged, through the action of the emotion of fear, to save it. The neighbor whose child has been rescued from imminent danger will be very appreciative of the other person, and through this appreciation their interpersonal relationship will become more cordial. Alternatively, when a person acts in a manner likely to suggest that he or she does not care much about the welfare of the people next to him or her, the relationship between him or her and those people suffers a setback. Emotions empower people to overcome obstacles in their environment and therefore end up defining the way a person reacts on the backdrop of specific circumstances. This ends up defining how a person relates to other people (Ryff Singer, 2001). For example, before sitting an oral interview, a person will be overcome with the emotion of anxiety. He or she will then be obliged through automatic adaptation to prepare extensively to beat his or her fear. When the time comes, he or she will have garnered sufficient confidence and his or her response to questions presented is likely to be mature, clear and expressive. If this be the case, the interviewing panel is likely to feel attracted to the candidate and will most likely hire him or her to fill the vacancy. A new relationship then begins and will continue to grow based on the candidate’s continued state of emotional competence and capacity to adapt to new challenges. Adaptive functions of emotions within relationships Emotions provide an individual with the capacity to adaptively respond and cope with particular circumstances or situations. Every person is unique in his or her own way, and these fundamental differences in personality have characterized the human species since the beginning (Knobloch Solomon, 2003). To forge and to maintain relationships, people need to tolerate this diversity, and emotional responses enable us to do so. For example, my friend, spouse or work colleague who looks depressed may be battling a certain stressing issue. If I take the time to encourage or cheer them up, I will have strengthened the bond between us. Emotions, through this adaptive function regulate the social interaction of people. By correctly identifying the emotions other people are feeling through their body language and facial expressions, an individual may be motivated to either move towards them or keep his or her distance (Oatley, Keltner Jenkins, 2006). This way, relationships are strengthened, formed or damaged to some degree. Through the evolutionary process, members of the human species have learnt to express their emotions through art, poetry and literature to give more meaning to the sense of being human, and it is the celebration of this color or spice that enables people to live cordially with one another. The self-validating role of emotions Who people really are is, to a large extent, derived from their emotions (Fiske, Gilbert Lindzey, 2010). Emotions are always valid even though they are not necessarily facts, and they therefore give a person the intuition to feel whether something may be right or wrong. The intensity of emotions expressed determines the probability of an individual’s needs being met. For example, a person who strongly feels the need to establish serious relationships with others is more likely to have healthy and objective relationships (Oatley, Keltner Jenkins, 2006). People who decrease the intensity of their emotions are less likely to be taken seriously, and therefore their relationships are more likely to be weak. Emotions also function to put a limit to relationships and the levels of social interaction by virtue of their being self-validating (Lewis, Haviland-Jones Barret, 2008). Take an example of a person who feels uneasy about attending a certain social event due to the feeling that something will go wrong. Nevertheless, he or she attends the event, and somewhere down the line, he or she disagrees with another person in attendance and decides to leave. Such a person will most likely develop the tendency to strictly follow their emotions while making decisions in other aspects of everyday life, including relationships. An example of this scenario is when an individual abstains from forming a relationship with another person in their social environment because of the feeling that he or she may not be a nice person, even though this may be totally wrong (Ryff Singer, 2001). Conclusion In this paper, my objective was to explain and describe the function of emotions in relationships. I began by identifying various emotions which directly impact on relationships. Such emotions include love, hate, pride, jealousy, passion and fear. Secondly, I explained the role emotions play in communication. The ways in which emotions are communicated are verbal statements and non-verbal gestures including facial expressions, gestures or any other type of body language. Communication is a very essential part in the foundation of a relationship, and the role emotions play in communication therefore becomes defining in relationships (Fussell, 2002). I also discussed the function of emotions in adapting to the various challenges that occur regularly in relationships as well as how emotions inhibit people from forming or maintaining relationships based on intuition. In conclusion, emotions, besides adding color and spice to the art living greatly determine how people understand each other and therefore how they relate in the society. References Dunsmorea, J. C. , Bensona, M. J. Bradburna, I. S. (2006). â€Å"Functions of Emotions for Parent Child Relationships within Dynamic Contexts: Introduction to the Special Issue. † Research in Human Development, 3(1) pp 1-5. Fiske, S. T. , Gilbert, D. T. , Lindzey, G. (2010). Handbook of Social Psychology Volume Two. 5th Ed. John Wiley and Sons. Fussell, S. R. (2002). The Verbal Communication of Emotions: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Lewis, M. , Haviland-Jones, J. M. , Barrett, L. F. (2008) Handbook of emotions. 3rd Ed. Guilford Press.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Climate Change And Creating Climate Refugees Environmental Sciences Essay

Climate Change And Creating Climate Refugees Environmental Sciences Essay Introduction 1.1 Background The world is undergoing a broad set of global changes, like changes in population density, climate, resource use, land use, biodiversity, and urbanization and globalization processes. Climate change is one of the drivers of global change, which has over the years been received strong focus by scientists, policy-makers and leaders of the world (Vitousek, 1994). At present climate change is considered as emerging global threat that not only induces physical environmental impacts but also affects the social structures, economic factors and the overall development process (Birkmann, 2010). This emerging threat has introduced a new social community named Climate Refugee especially for the affected developing nations. The UN currently states that more refugees are displaced by environmental catastrophes than wars, and the number of the climate refugee is more than 25 million which is likely to become 50 million in coming decades (Meyers, 2002). Out of those 25 million people about 10 milli on are from Africa who are directly affected by the climate change via droughts. The second largest group is from coastal areas of Asian countries, who are affected by natural disasters like cyclones, storm surges, floods, salinity and droughts (Anon, 2010). The cumulative effects of climate change exacerbate food and water insecurity, loss of biodiversity and ecosystem, environmental degradation and human insecurity through social conflict, political conflict and violence in the affected developing countries (Adger and Kelly, 1999). Hence, the socioeconomic structures are undermined in these countries where the affected people are compelled to switch over occupations for livelihood. These are the people who can no longer ensure a secured livelihood in their origin of dwelling (Mayers, 2002). Together with climate change effects, population pressure problem and hardcore poverty have induced a notable change in the whole economic structure of these countries. As a result, these countries are suffered from chronic socio-economic inequality and social instability (Barnett, 2007). Bangladesh often makes top news all over the world. However, unlike most other countries, it is not because of politics but for devastating natural catastrophes causing huge death tolls and massive destruction. This South Asian LDC, since her independence in 1971, has been struggling with a number of socioeconomic and socio-political problems such as- rapid population growth, poverty, illiteracy, gender disparity, slow economic growth, institutional inertia, political instability, violence and so on. But from last two decades she started struggling with a new problem- the adverse effects of climate change in the form of natural disasters (Miliband, 2009). Over the last two decades these disasters have become regular phenomena contributed miserable suffering to millions of inhabitants who are vulnerable to the climatic shocks (GoB, 2005). In other words, climate risk for Bangladesh is relatively higher than most other countries of the world. The Global Climate Risk Index prepared by G ermanwatch shows that Bangladesh is at top of the ranking of most affected countries by climatic extreme events over the last two decades. Table 1.1 shows the overall ranking made by Germanwatch. Table 1.1 Long term Climate Risk Index (CRI) for most affected countries for period 1990-2008 CRI 1990-2008 Country CRI Score Death toll* Deaths/thousand* Total looses in million US$ PPP* Losses per GDP in %* 1 Bangladesh 8.00 8,241 6.27 2,189 1.81 2 Myanmar 8.25 4,522 9.60 707 2.55 3 Honduras 12.00 340 5.56 660 3.37 4 Vietnam 18.83 466 0.64 1,525 1.31 5 Nicaragua 21.00 164 3.37 211 2.03 6 Haiti 22.83 335 4.58 95 1.08 7 India 25.83 3,255 0.33 6,132 0.38 8 Dominican Republic 27.58 222 2.93 191 0.45 9 Philippines 27.67 799 1.11 544 0.30 10 China 28.58 2,023 0.17 25,961 0.78 * Annual Source: Germanwatch, 2010 that the most common disasters are flood and cyclone. Recent IPCC assessment reports (TAR, 2001 and AR4, 2007) also reveal that over the last two decades both of the above-mentioned disaster-events have become more frequent and devastating for Bangladesh. It is learnt from IPCC reports that 5-10% increase in wind speed is very likOn basis of above-mentioned table, it is easy to apprehend why Bangladesh was cited numerous occasions in COP15 held in Copenhagen in 2009. At present this country is more likely to exposed towards climatic extreme events than most of the countries in the world (UNFCCC, 2009). These events, in form of natural disasters range from ravaging cyclones to devastating floods (Muhammad, 2007). Following Table 1.2 provides an overall idea on most devastating disasters occurred in Bangladesh since early twentieth century. This table shows Table 1.2 Disaster-log in Bangladesh since early 1900s Disasters Time Disasters Time Epidemic 1918 Cyclone 24-5-1985 Drought 1943 Flood 22-7-1987 Cyclone October 1942 Flood August 1987 Cyclone 28-5-1963 Flood June 1988 Cyclone May 1965 Cyclone 29-4-1991 Cyclone June 1965 Cyclone 15-5-1995 Flood July 1968 Flood 5-7-1998 Cyclone 12-11-1970 Flood September 2000 Flood July 1974 Flood 20-6-2004 Drought July 1983 Cyclone 15-11-2007 Flood May 1984 Cyclone 27-05-2009 Source: EMDAT likely during the cyclone-season in Bangladesh that would eventually enhance storm surge and coastal flooding, while 10-20% increases of wind intensity can cause floods both in coast and inlands as the cyclone makes land fall (Agarwala, 2003). It has been assessed that an increase of 2 ° C temperature and a 0.3 m sea level rise would cause a cyclone in the costal belt of Bangladesh as strong as cyclone of 1991; furthermore, such a cyclone is likely to result in a 1.5 m higher storm surge that may inundate 20% more land than 1991 cyclone (Ali, 1996). The most recent example of costal cyclone as possible effect of climate change is SIDR which battered the coastal belt in Bangladesh on 15th November 2007. The wind speed was about 220 to 240 km/hour and at least 3,113 people were known dead and more than 10,000 were missing; the damage due to this disaster had been around US$ 2.3 million (EMDAT, 2009). The intensity of SIDR was not less than the 1991 cyclone in some part of the coastal areas and the impact was even more than that. Furthermore, on 27th May 2009, another devastating cyclone named AILA hit the South-western part of Bangladesh and West Bengal of India, which exacerbated the suffering for the affected people in Bangladesh; although an early warning system enabled the evacuation of an estimated 2.7 million people to higher ground and cyclone shelter-houses (BBC, 2009). It is predicted that a single meter rise of sea level would inundate more than 18% of the coastal belt and will affect 11% of the total countrys population. Two-third of the whole country is only 10 m above the sea level; therefore, about 13 million of the total population may likely to be homeless and become environmental refugees as the victim of climate changing process (Huq et al, 1999). Khulna and Barisal, the costal divisions of Bangladesh are relatively disaster-prone, where about 3.2 million people are at risk and about one-eighth of the countrys agricultural lands and more than 8,000 communication networks are likely to be affected due to climate change effects (Parvin, 2010). 1.2 Statement of the problem About one third of the territory of Bangladesh is delimited as coastal areas which are combined of distinctive opportunities, diversified threats and vulnerabilities (HarunOrRashid, 2009). It is because coastal areas possess different geo-physical and environmental characteristics that distinguish the coastal zone from rest of the country. These distinctive characteristics are interplay of tidal regime, salinity in soil and water, cyclone and storm surge; with economic and social implications on the population (PDO-ICZMP, 2003). Hence, such identical geo-physical pattern has introduced a completely different livelihood pattern, where people are involved with selected coastal economic activities like fishing, salt production, fry collection from the sea and resource collection from the adjacent mangrove forest (Ahmed, 2003, Islam, 2004). Although the coastal areas are much more fertile land for agricultural production, these areas are relatively income-poor compared to the rest of the country. Average per capita GDP (at current market price) in the coastal zone was US$ 402 in 2008, compared to US$ 621 for the whole country on average (GoB, 2009; CDP, 2009). There are ten different ethnic communities living in the coastal zones and they have complete different cultures and livelihood patterns. Along with the nontribal people, those ethnic communities completely depend on the coastal natural resources for their livelihood (Kamal, 2001). Their despair and dream, plight and struggle, vulnerability and resilience are uniquely revolved round in an intricate ecological and social setting which make their livelihoods distinctive from other parts of the country to a considerable extent. The Government of Bangladesh has already recognized coastal zone as areas of enormous potentials. In contrast, these areas are lagging behind in socio-economic development and vulnerable to different natural disasters and environmental degradation (Sevaraju, 2006). For a LDC like Bangladesh where the climate change takes a shape of natural disaster not only affects the socio-economic condition of coastal communities but also hinders obtaining an optimal GDP growth (ADPC, 2007). Climate change poses a significant threat for Bangladesh, particularly the projected climate change effects include sea level rise, higher temperature, enhanced monsoon precipitation and run-off, potentially reduced dry season precipitation and increase in cyclone intensity in this region (Agrawala, 2003). Those threats would induce serious impediments to the socioeconomic development of Bangladesh including coastal areas. A subjective ranking of key climate change effects for coastal Bangladesh identifies cyc lone and sea level rise as being of the highest priority in terms of severity, certainty and urgency of impact (Parvin, 2009). National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA) and other scholars have identified the coastal areas of Bangladesh as one of the most affected areas in the world due to the threats of climate change effects (GoB 2005). In the southwestern part of Bangladesh the physical isolation of coastal communities makes them highly resource-dependent available around the coast and adjacent mangrove forest (the Sundarbans), which reduces their opportunities to access to alternative livelihoods indeed. These hindrances make the coastal communities vulnerable to any disruption, especially to natural catestrophes. As a result, households in coastal communities suffer from imbalance of social and economic powers, lack of participation in decision-making, limited or zero asset ownership, and laws and regulations influencing peoples ability to use assets or access to resources (Pomeroy et al., 2006). 1.3 Justification of the study There are only a few number of studies have been conducted on coastal Bangladesh. These studies are mainly conducted on hazard warning and evacuation system (Paul and Dutt, 2010), health security due to disaster (Ray-Bennet et al., 2010), physical injuries during cyclones (Paul, 2009), and coastal hazards and community-coping method (Parvin, 2009). So, most of these studies focused on the coping and adaptation mechanisms in coastal areas. However, we hardly find any study that addressed the socioeconomic vulnerability in local level of coastal zone, especially in the southwestern part of Bangladesh. Hence, without identifying local-level vulnerability pattern the suggested coping or adaptation mechanism is likely to be least effective in reality. In this study we attempt to fill up the knowledge gap by identifying quantitative local-level vulnerability at first; then we try to look for optimal adaptation options based on empirical relationship between vulnerability and important soci oeconomic parameters. We selected Koyra upazila  [1]  as our study area, which one of the most disaster-prone areas in southwestern coastal zone of Bangladesh. 1.4 Research questions and objectives of the study Considering all the above-mentioned facts, we proceed with the discovery of logical answers of following research questions; What is the symptom of climate change in the study area? Which major climatic factors constitute for climate change here? Which factors exacerbate such vulnerability? Is there any single factor or multiple factors? What is the nature and magnitude of relationship between this vulnerability and socioeconomic factors in the study area? What are the possible adaptation options in terms of capacity for the vulnerable households in study area? The above-mentioned research questions are addressed by the study objectives. Hence, the main study objectives are; To understand and figure out the manifestation of climate change in the study area, To quantify socioeconomic vulnerability and assess the nature and magnitude of the relationship between vulnerability and major socioeconomic parameters of the study area, and To identify and recommend the optimal adaptation options in terms of capacity of households in the study area while addressing socioeconomic vulnerability. 1.5 Outline of this study This study consists of nine chapters. Let us have a glimpse at the brief contents of all the chapters chronologically. Chapter one is introduction. It provides an overall scenario on Bangladeshs status in relations with climate change effects. We briefly discuss about the problem statement and then we identify the possible knowledge gap of socioeconomic vulnerability in the study area. We conclude this chapter by mentioning a number of research questions, which are addressed by three main objectives of this study. In Chapter two we focus on the theoretical background and theoretical framework for this study. Under theoretical background we mention and briefly discuss relevant literatures in accordance with our study objectives. Then we depict the theoretical framework for this study, which is used for quantifying socioeconomic vulnerability of the study area. We mention about the methodology of this study in Chapter three. In this chapter we focus on types of research that we have adopted in this study. Then in accordance with study objectives we mention associated data type, collection techniques and data sources. We also mention the sampling method and sampling size. The construction of vulnerability index is discussed in this chapter. Finally we conclude by mentioning the impediments those we faced while accomplishing this study. Chapter four deals with the description of study area Koyra. We mention important information about geographical location, administration, topographic, physiographic and socioeconomic condition. We include a Disaster Calendar for our study area that we made by collecting information from households. Chapter five deals with identification of climate change effects and quantification of socioeconomic vulnerability at local level of study area. In this we show possible climate change effects in the study area based on empirical data and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) findings. Later we quantify vulnerability for each union  [2]  by applying the Vulnerability Index. We show union-wise vulnerability with the help of maps. Once we have quantified vulnerability, we conduct a number of econometric analyses in Chapter six in order to show relationship between vulnerability and important socioeconomic parameters of study area. We mention the major findings from analyses in two different tables. We also put brief explanation of models and variables used in this study. In Chapter seven we discuss the major findings obtained from model analyses in elaborated way. Here we also mention the possible reasons behind the nature and extent of relationship between vulnerability and socioeconomic parameters of study area. At the end of this chapter we check the consistency of vulnerability index by applying an alternative approach. Subsequent regression coefficients of alternative approach are also tested and compared with the old model results. Based on the results of relationship mentioned in chapter six and seven; we recommend the optimal adaptation options for the affected people through brief description in Chapter eight. We also draw few of our recommendations on basis of correlation between different variables. The existing adaptation options in study area are also mentioned in Chapter eight. We conclude this study in Chapter nine. We summarize major findings from this study in a nut shell. Besides, we focus on shortcomings of the approach we used to quantify vulnerability. In fine we mention the issues that we did not address in this study where further research can be conducted.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Essay on Tom in The Glass Menagerie -- Glass Menagerie essays

The Character of Tom in The Glass Menagerie    Tom Wingfield has a dual role in The Glass Menagerie. The first Tom is the narrator, who introduces his second self, the character. In his fifth soliloquy, Tom the narrator indicates that time has detached him from the drama, "for time is the longest distance between two places" (Williams 1568). In the closing soliloquy Tom recounts how he lives and re-lives the story in his memory, though he is detached from the participants in the original affair. Like his father, "a telephone man who fell in love with long distances," (Williams 1523), Tom has fallen in love with the long distance that is time.    Tom is a sensitive, artistic man who is forced by circumstances into a phenomenological situation. He is compelled to live and re-live the situation of the play, in which he sought for and found what he believed to be freedom. Although he escapes the situation, he does not find freedom; his consciousness forces him to dwell upon the situation until he finds meaning in it. Because Mr. Wingfield, Laura, Amanda, and Jim are parts of ...

Friday, October 11, 2019

Great Depression and Technology

As Albert Einstein once said â€Å"It has become appallingly obvious that our technology has exceeded our humanity. † Throughout the years our technology has become more and more advanced, creating more and more inventions. Modern technology has been created to fulfill every human’s needs. With such great advancements it has become convenient for our society to turn to technology for all our questions. We have not realized that day by day technology is taking over us. Many like to argue that it is not true, but if you were to take away every possible form of technology away from them, it would make living for them very difficult. Now a day, technology has played such an important role in our lives that it seems almost impossible for many of us to live without it. Being said, modern technology has produced more inconveniences than conveniences. To begin, with technology constantly advancing, many have become very reliant on it, making technology almost a necessity to a person’s everyday life. Almost everyone owns a car, a computer/laptop, a cell phone, and even higher advanced technology. Everywhere you go, people are either talking on their phone or texting, However, with so much technology being provided to us, it has made us profoundly lazy and too dependent on technology not allowing us to think for ourselves. So not only has modern technology made us lazy but also unintelligent. â€Å"Who can remember the days when you had to go to the library to do research for a research paper, had to pick up the morning newspaper to get the latest news, or had to buy a stamp and put a check in an envelope to pay a bill? In the last 50 years technology has undergone an amazing transformation. But with the emergence of the Internet, is our ability to access technology on a daily basis a good thing or a bad thing? † (Bradley). Bradley clearly states that we no longer do simple tasks on our own; we rely on technology to do them for us. We now use Google or other search engines to look up questions, turn on a televisions to see what is going on around us, and take a picture of a bill on our cell phones to pay it. â€Å"In another 50 years will we still be considered a lazy society? (Bradley). Furthermore, â€Å"Although the proliferation of communications technology has made it easier than to ever to have a conversation with or write a letter to another person, it has also rendered us more isolated. Computers have significantly reduced the amount of face-to-face interaction people once enjoyed. In place of the richness of human contact, many now settle for the comparatively pale pleasures of comp uter social networking† (Wolfe). With social medias like Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter, communicating with one another has become easier than ever. But this may not always be a good thing. People can easily create fake profiles and pretend to be a young man or woman when they can be a crazed rapist or murderer. Not only that but with so many social networks, cyber bullying has increased drastically. People can put whatever they want on the internet which can lower a person's self-esteem causing for them to want to kill themselves. Also, since we communicate so much over social media, it can affect our writing skills. Many people who chat online do not use proper vocabulary. For example, instead of writing okay, they abbreviate it writing OK. This causes us to begin writing in slang when we write papers for school. As a society we should learn face-to-face communication instead of over the internet. As final point, with new advanced machines being created and the machines being capable to do almost anything, there has been an increase in job elimination. Some of these jobs would include those of farm workers and factory workers. â€Å"A technology revolution is fast replacing human beings with machines in virtually every sector and industry in the global economy. Already, millions of workers have been permanently eliminated from the economic process, and whole work categories and job assignments have shrunk, been restructured, or disappeared. Global unemployment has now reached its highest level since the great depression of the 1930s. More than 800 million human beings are now unemployed or underemployed in the world. That figure is likely to rise sharply between now and the turn of the century as millions of new entrants into the workforce find themselves without jobs† (Rifkin). With modern technology taking over the jobs of farm workers, factory workers, etc, people are left jobless. And living in this economy has made it very difficult for people to find new jobs. Like Rotman said, â€Å"Rapid technological change has been destroying jobs faster than it is creating them. † With technology constantly evolving day by day our society has to be more careful than ever to not let it take over us. Although for many of us it may already have.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Cameras on Every Corner

The city of Detroit should not have a camera on every corner. Yes we need to do something to make or city safer. Yes there are many unsolved crimes but the people in Detroit needs privacy. We should not have a camera watching every move we make. No matter where we go once we are outside our homes we will be getting watched. How much privacy do they expect us to give up for safety? If I'm alone in the park, I want to know that I'm actually alone. Video cameras however don't really reduce crime. They do act as somewhat as a deterrent and they certainly help identify the perpetrators, but overall it doesn't really do much. We know this through studies from London, England where nearly every street corner has a video camera. Overall, the crime rate of London has not really dipped at all since these were placed. Having a spy camera on every corner makes some people feel more at ease. The picture may be worth a thousand words, but it doesn't tell the whole story. A spy camera in the school bus may show the bus driver not doing anything during a brawl. It looks bad. What is doesn't show is that the traffic did not offer the driver a chance to pull over and that she was trying to contain the situation as best she could with her words. The picture won’t tell everything. Having these cameras could cause another crime. Someone a night guard, employee, hacker, etc. could sell the surveillance tapes to use them to determine a pattern of behavior to plan another crime. Also our city is in a lot of debt. So why would we spend millions of dollars on all those cameras? That money could be paying off debts. Buying all those cameras would put us in more debts which would cost people there jobs. Without our jobs people won’t be able to get the things they need to live. The people will need some money for our own common good. The city of Detroit should not have cameras on every corner.