Thursday, August 22, 2019

Way in Which Piaget and Vygotsky Share Similar Ideas Essay Example for Free

Way in Which Piaget and Vygotsky Share Similar Ideas Essay While both Piaget and Vygotsky were similar in their views in certain ways. Most commonly shared were their views as constructivists (the idea of learning by doing) and believed that social forces set the limits of development. The most obvious difference is their view of cognitive development. Where Piaget felt that cognition develops in four discreet stages that are limited, Vygotsky believed the opposite, that there are no stages and development is continuous. Where there are a few areas that I relate with the theoretical views of John Piaget, I tend to relate more so with those of Vygotsky. Both were strong advocates for students having active participation in their learning. Like Vygotsky, I feel that learning and development are intertwined and in some cases learning can precede development. Vygotsky compared a learner’s actual development to their potential development; this potential area is called the â€Å"zone of proximal development†. When working with the children it is in this area that I observe any potential problem areas where a child might need help as well as recognize where I can push a child a little further in order to get them to reach their maximum potential. As far as instructional strategies, I tend to rely heavily on a Montessori style environment; where discovery, project based learning, and curiosity inducing strategies expands a child’s intellect. As a child care provider I often try to engage my pupil with activities and materials that challenge them. Most toys and instructional material I present to the children are usually slightly above their ages. Where Vygotsky felt that culture plays a large role in development, I too agree that development is improved when social interaction is guided by highly skilled people in the same culture.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Photography Essays History of Photography

Photography Essays History of Photography History of Photography When you look at a photograph from your favorite photographer what do you see? Does it remind you of your past or make you think of the future? What if there was a photographer that made you think of not only the past but also the future as well? Well that is exactly what Abelardo Morell did with his Camera Obscura photographs. Abelardo Morell took Camera Obscura out of the past and brought it into the future. This paper plans to discuss who Abelardo Morell is, the history of Camera Obscura, and also discuss and analyze three or more photographs by Abelardo himself. It will also discuss Abelardo’s career and how Camera Obscura falls into his career as well as any statements from him about the process. Also any writings or responses by art critics and/or philosophers about Abelardo Morell’s work will be included. This paper hopes to bring across to the reader an understanding of Abelardo Morell and Camera Obscura. â€Å"Abelardo Morell was born in Havana. As a child he felt a sense of alienation and isolation in Cuba, feelings that remained when he moved as a teenager with his family to New York City. Although he later studied comparative religion at Bowdoin College, he eventually took up photography as a way to express his feelings as an immigrant to the United States during the turbulent 1960s† (Yorba). Photography took his mind away from all of the busyness the world had. â€Å"After earning an MFA from Yale University in 1981, he began teaching at Massachusetts College of Art in 1983, where he still teaches today† (â€Å"Site Lines,† Abelardo). Many students are extremely luck to have a mentor such as Morell. He went far and beyond what any other teacher would do for their students. â€Å"When I began teaching photography at the Massachusetts College of Art in the mid 1980s, one of the strategies I used to get beginners excited about photography was to convert our cla ssroom into a camera obscura† (Morell). Camera Obscura might sound like a complicated technique but it really is very simple. One would be surprised how easily it can be done. Even though it can be done very easily and may seem like a new technique, the process has been around for many centuries. â€Å"In 1490, Leonardo da Vinci wrote the earliest surviving description of the camera obscura (dark chamber), a device designed to reproduce linear perspective. The camera obscura, the prototype of the photographic camera, was a large dark room that an artist physically entered. Light entered through a small hole in one of the walls and projected a distinct, but inverted, color image onto the opposite wall that could be then traced† (Hirsh). â€Å"The Camera Obscura seems little short of miraculous, even after the optical rationale has been explained. That one pinhole of light can carry all the visual information of a landscape into a darkened room is still, after many centuries, unknown to the great majority of humans and surprising when they learn of it† (Morell). To understand it better the camera obscura was a darkened room or chamber that allowed only a pinhole of light to enter into a light tight area through which is called an aperture. Diffraction is what allows camera obscura to work. Diffraction in this sense is the bending of light waves that enter the chamber or room and to appear on the wall opposite of the aperture. This image can be produced with exceptional quality if accomplished in the right way. When viewing the camera obscura while it is taking place, one will notice that the image presented on the wall is inverted due to diffraction. Leonardo da Vinci is said to have developed this technique for drawing but was not credited for it. Later on people began to use it more to render drawings to be perspectively correct. Artists at the same time had a hard time with perspective, so the camera obscura helped advance their skills in drawing with becoming perspectively correct. This device is important to the history of photography b ecause it was one of the first forms of photography and cameras. It showed that, at the same time, advances could be made in photography, something with the means of time and knowledge. The discovery of the â€Å"new† technique brought about a need and desire of photography to this day, especially for Abelardo Morell. When deciding to create a camera obscura there are a few things one should consider before jumping into the mind-boggling technique. The first thing you need to consider is the room that you will be photographing in. This room needs to have at least one window and one entry way. The second factor to consider is the time of day you will be photographing in. The time of day where the light is the brightest is the best time to pull off this magnificent method. Also, look at what is outside of the anticipating room. Is the landscape dull or is it astounding? Depending on how amazing you want your photograph to come out depends on the photographer and the landscape that will be captured.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Influence of Celebrity Advertisements

Influence of Celebrity Advertisements India is one of the youngest countries in the world with 60% of its population less than 24 years of age. Maximum youngsters are using TV as a source of information. The study reflects that Young generation is highly influenced and convinced by celebrity advertisements. They feel celebrity advertisements increase credibility of TV advertisements. Physical appearance and personality of celebrity are also important factors to make TV advertisements more effective and convincing. The buying behavior of young generation is influenced by celebrities knowledge and experience. They prefer female celebrities for TV advertisements. According to them celebrity should be young/adult with appealing figure and celebritys Status, class, and lifestyle should match with the product which they are going to endorse. This study reflects few interesting result that Indian youth and adult majority do not give any importance to the caste, regional and religious background of celebrity for TV advertisement s. * Professor and Head, Accurate Institute of Management and Technology,Greater Noida, Gautam Buddha Nagar, (Uttar Pradesh India) ** Scientist, Center for Science Communication, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (Madhya Pradesh, India) *** Professor and Head, School of Social Science, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya,, Indore (Madhya Pradesh, India) Introduction In Indian family life cycle, young members of family play a vital role in buying behavior. The term young refers to persons who are no longer children and not yet adults. India is one of the youngest countries in the world with 60% of its population less then 24 years of age and is charted as the most prospective destination for retail investment in the A. T. Kearneys Global Retail Opportunity Report, 2007. The Indian young segment roughly estimates close to 250million (between the ages of fifteen and twenty-five) and can be broadly divided (socio-psychologically) into three categories: the Bharatiyas, the Indians the Inglodians (copyright Kaustav SG 2008). The Bharatiyas estimating 67% of the young population live in the rural areas with least influence of globalization and have high traditional values. They are least economically privileged, most family oriented Bollywood influenced generation. The Indians constitute 31.5% and have moderate global influence. They are well aware of the global trends but rooted to Indian family values, customs and ethos. The Inglodians are basically the creamy layers and marginal (1.5% or roughly three million) in number though they are strongly growing (70% growth rate). Inglodians are affluent and consume most of the trendy luxury items. They are internet savvy the believers of global-village (a place where there is no difference between east west, developing developed countries etc.), highly influenced by western music, food, fashion culture yet Indian at heart. According to The Financial Express Special, Tuesday, February 9, 2010 New Delhi young (age 13 to 35 years) population in India is 459 million in which literate young population is 333 million. More specifically age group (13 to 19) population is 36.7 million, age group (20 to 24) population is 22.1 million and age group (25 to 35) population is 44.3 million. Out of 333 million young populations, male young population is 186.5 and female young population is 146.2 million. However Television is most popular source of information with 78 % (91% urban, 70% rural) young viewer-ship. Newspaper comes second with 53 % (65.3 % urban, 45.9 % rural) readership, though it scores over television when it comes to being the primary source for news current affairs. Data also shows that maximum youngsers are using TV as a source of information. The importance of advertising has been widely accepted all over the world and has profound recognition in the global market. In India the role of advertising is getting more stress day by day and every businessman wants to invest willingly in advertising. The advertising business in India grew from Rs10 crores in 1955 to Rs 8000 crores in 2000* and in Nov 2005 it is estimated Rs.19900 crores and it is expected that it will reach Rs 55,800 crores by 2010 as estimated by Dainik Bhaskara. The fast growth of advertising industry in India is because of the phenomenonal development of such media as television, radio, and computer and in addition to the large number of new products introduced due to rapid industrialization new economic policy and economic development of the country. Billions of dollars are spent on celebrity endorsements, which show its importance for the advertising industry. A recent estimate notes that one quarter of all commercials screened in the USA include celebrities. In UK one in five (20%) marketing communication campaign features celebrities. (Journal of Advertising Research) In India, 20% of advertisements is endorsement by celebrities. Dainik Bhaskar estimates the total expenditure on advertising as Rs 19900 crores (Nov 2005) while on celebrity endorsement Rs 950 crores. Theory and practice prove that use of super star in advertising generates a lot of publicity and attention for public.( Ohanion 1991 ) At present the business companies prefer the use of celebrities as spokespersons in order to position and promote the sale and popularization of products or brands. The use of celebrities has become a favorable marketing strategy. Celebrities are people who enjoy public recognition by a large share of certain group of people, whereas attributes like attractiveness, extraordinary lifestyle or special status are just examples and specific common characteristics can not be observed. It can be said that within a corresponding special group, celebrities generally differ from their source name, and enjoy a high degree of public awareness. The main reason for using celebrities, as spokespersons is their high potential influence. The celebrities get higher degree of attention recall. They increase awareness of a company advertising, create positive feeling towards brands and areperceived by consumers as more entertaining (Soleman 2002). Using a celebrity in advertising is therefore likely to positively affect consumers brand attitude and purchase intention. It is estimated that approximately 20 percent of all advertisements use celebrity spokespersons payment to celebrities account for around 10 percent of all advertising dollars spent. Literature Review Researchers in the fields of marketing, communications and social psychology have tried to identify factors related to the endorser that are central to understanding and improving their effectiveness. The theoretical basis for assuming that an advertisements effectiveness increases relative to the trustworthiness, expertise, and attractiveness of the communicator stems from two research streams: source credibility (comprising of source trustworthiness and source expertise) and source attractiveness (also referred to collectively as the source models). From their study in 1953 Hovland et al. established the source credibility model and defined expertise as the extent to which a communicator is perceived to be a source of valid assertions and trustworthiness as the degree of confidence in the communicators intent to communicate the assertions he considers most valid. Source Attractiveness does not refer to physical attractiveness per se it is related to three more general concepts: similarity, familiarity, and liking. The model holds that the effectiveness of a message depends on the sources familiarity, likeability, similarity, and attractiveness to the respondent. Familiarity is considered knowledge of the source through exposure, whereas likeability is affection for the source as a result of the sources physical appearance and behavior; and similarity is the supposed resemblance between the source and the receiver of the message (McGuire, 1985). According to the source models, endorsers are effective when they are seen by consumers as trustworthy (Friedman Friedman, 1976; G. Miller Basehart, 1969), experts (Crano, 1970; Crisi Kassinove, 1973; Woodside Davenport, 1974), and attractive (Joseph, 1982; McGuire, 1985). Although there are a number of moderating influences (e.g. fit with product and audience; low vs. high purchase decision; prio r attitudes), in general, the more trustworthiness, expertise, and attractiveness the endorser has, the more effective they are at changing consumer attitude and opinion. (Brinol, Petty, Tormala, 2004; Gotlieb Sarel, 1991; Grewal, Gotlieb, Marmorstein, 1994; Harmon Coney, 1982; Hovland, Irving, Kelly, 1953; Hovland Weiss, 1951; Sternthal, Dholakia, Leavitt, 1978) Empirical evidence in support of source credibility is abundant. Source credibility is credited with improved consumer confidence (Brinol et al., 2004), reversing negative predispositions (Sternthal et al., 1978), increasing product purchase intentions (Harmon Coney, 1982), and altering consumers reactions to advertisements and brands (Goldsmith, Lafferty, Newell, 2000). Additionally, research has shown that highly credible sources induce more behavioral compliance than do less credible sources (Ohanian, 1990, p. 42); OBJECTIVES OF STUDY To analyze the influence of celebrity TV advertisements on young generation. To find out impact of buying behavior factors on young population HYPOTHESIS 1. H01: Young generation is not influenced by celebrity TV advertisements 2. H02: There is no impact of buying behavior factors on young generation 5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Survey was conducted in district Gautam Budh Nagar. The 300 sample size was selected in such a way that both the young and adult were represented proportionately. In most of the situations many respondents had refused and some respondents had not cooperated to fill the questionnaires. Hence 450 respondents were selected by non-probability convenience sampling method to fill thequestionnaire. Only 300 respondents have given appropriate and complete information on sent questionnaire. Rests of the questionnaires were dropped because of incomplete information. A five-point interval Likert scale from strongly agree (5) to strongly not agree (1) was used to measure the response to each statement (items). Z Test used to test mean difference between two samples Z Test: SE= Standard Error = Standard Deviation (Adult) Standard Deviation (YOUNG) = Mean of Adult = Mean of YOUNG = Number of Observations (Adult) = Number of Observations (YOUNG) Z= Z Test DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis shows that out of 300 respondents, there were 166 (55.33 %) young respondents and 134 (44.67 %) were adult respondents in this study age group of 12 year to 21 years considered as Young respondents and Age group of 22 year to 45 years considered as Adult respondents. (Table-1) More specifically data analysis shows that in male respondents, young were118 (39.33%) and adult were 80 (26.67%). Similarly in female respondents, young were 48 (16 %) and adult 54 (18 %) (Table-1.1) INFLUENCE OF CELEBRITIES ON RESPONDENTS (CONSUMERS) THROUGH T.V. ADVERTISEMENTS 6.1. INFLUENCE To measure the influence of celebrity through T.V. advertisements on respondents, eight questions were asked from respondents. (Figure-1) According to Table No.2 results shows that both young and adult respondents have similar opinion. They were in favor of the fact that Celebrity advertisements are more effective; create more attention and trust than non celebrity advertisements. However young generation feels that celebrities have more expertise than non-celebrities for T.V. advertising. They feel more convinced by celebrity advertisements. According to them, use of celebrities increases advertisements credibility. Physical appearance and personality of celebrity are also important factors to makes T.V. advertising more effective and convincing. 6.2. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS, WHICH INFLUENCE THE BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF YOUNG GENERATION Twenty-four specific attributes of celebrities (factors) have been analyzed under the major four factors expertise, trustworthiness, physical appearance and personality (Figure-2) 6.2.1. EXPERTISE Seven statements were asked to respondents to analyze specific expertise attributes of celebrities, which may influence the buying behavior of respondents Table No. 3 shows that buying behavior of young generation influenced, if celebrities are experienced and users of product. However, adult respondents feel that celebrities should have knowledge of the products which they are going to endorse by TV advertisements. According to both type of respondents (adult and young) celebrities should be educated and skilled, qualified and Justified for that product which they are going to promote. Result also reflects that technical knowledge about product/brand to celebrity is not required to convince purchase. 6.2.2. TRUSTWORTHINESS Specific attributes of trustworthiness of celebrities have been analyzed on the basis of five statements According to table no.3.1 Young and adult both respondents purchase their products on the trust, honesty, truthfulness and dependability of celebrities. However adult respondents feel celebrities should be sincere and Reliable also to influence their buying behavior. 6.2.3. PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS To analyze specific attributes of physical attractiveness of celebrites five questions were asked from respondents to measure the infuluence on buying behaviour of respondents Table 3.2 results shows that young generation feels that celebrities should be young/adult and they should have appealing figure (sexy and beautiful) they prefer female celebrities for TV advertisement. However, both (young and adult) respondents feel that celebrities should be smart (body constitution) to convince to purchaser. They also believe that Voice and gesture of celebrity is also important factors that affect on their purchase decisions. 6.2.4. PERSONALITY To measure the impact of specific personality attributes of celebrities, seven questions were asked from respondents that may influence their buying behavior. According to findings of Table 3.3 young generation feels that Status, class, and lifestyle of celebrity should match with product/brand and advertisement for effective and convincing advertisement. However adults believe that social cultural background of celebrities influences their buying behavior. Both young and adult respondents have similar thinking towards Image, Reputation and popularity (public figure) of celebrity which plays important role to influence buying behavior of respondents. Analysis also reflects few interesting results that Indian young and adult respondents do not believe in the caste, regional and religious background of celebrity CONCLUSION Young generation is highly influenced and convinced by celebrity advertisements According to them, celebrity advertisements increase credibility of TV advertisements. Physical appearance and personality of celebrity are also important factors to make TV advertisements more effective and convincing. The buying behavior of young generation is influenced by celebrities knowledge and experience about such products which they are going to promote by TV advertisements. They prefer female celebrities for TV advertisements, according to them celebrity should be young/adult with appealing figure (sexy and beautiful) and celebritys Status, class, and lifestyle should match the product which they are going to endorse. Young and adult population commonly feels that celebrity advertisement is more effective; creates more attention and trust than non celebrity advertisements. According to them celebrities must be educated, qualified justified with that product to which they are endorsing through TV advertisements. They dont feel that technical knowledge is required to celebrities to endorse the products. They feel motivated to purchase their products by the trust, honesty, truthfulness and dependability of celebrity. They believe that celebrities should be smart (body constitution) to convince purchaser, they also feel that Voice and gesture of celebrity are also important factors to have effect on their purchase decisions. They have similar thinking that Image, Reputation and popularity (public figure) of celebrity plays important role in influencing the buying behavior. However adult generation believes that social and cultural background of celebrity should match product and TV advertisement. They also feel that celebrities should be sincere and Reliable to influence their buying behavior. This study reflects few interesting results that Indian young and adult majority do not give any importance to the caste, regional and religious background of celebrity for TV advertisements.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Free Macbeth Essays: Importance of the Last Two Scenes :: GCSE Coursework Macbeth Essays

The Importance of the Last Two Scenes in Macbeth The last two scenes are a very important part of the play. They are the last two scenes in the play in which Macbeth is alive. They are also a very effective part of the play; the audience will have already realized that something will happen which will decide the ending of the play. This awareness that something is about to happen is made so by the commotion of the two great armies as they prepare to fight and by Macbeth's eagerness and confidence to win. These scenes remind the audience of Macbeth's true character. Early on in the play he was portrayed as a fierce and brave warrior, however, as the play developed the audience began to get the impression that Macbeth was not all that he had been made out to be. He was seen as a selfish man who got what he wanted by murdering his rivals. This was intentional on the part of the playwright as the entire play is focusing in on how a man as powerful as the king of Scotland can do whatever his "vaulting ambition" wants him to. These scenes re-iterate Macbeth's original character. All of the scenes leading up to these two have been advancing the plot in such a way that scenes seven and eight are able to take the audience completely by surprise. For example, the supernatural plays a large role in this play and the audience knows that it will have something to do with the destiny of Macbeth and the outcome of the story. It is this prediction that makes the audience remember what the witches said to Macbeth: "The power of man, for none of woman born shall harm Macbeth." These phrases baffle the audience, and so as the end of the play approaches they become interested to find out what they mean. Scene seven begins with a short soliloquy from Macbeth, he says "They have tied me to a stake, I cannot fly, but bear-like I must fight the course." This tells the audience that Macbeth doesn't want to fight, and he doesn't, but later it is revealed that he is very confident to win. The first man that Macbeth fights with is Young Siward. Macbeth soon kills him "for none of woman born shall harm Macbeth." Scene eight follows, with the fight between Macbeth and Macduff.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

My Philosophy of Education :: Teaching Teachers Educational Essays

My Philosophy of Education I always get asked why I am a chemistry major if I have no intention of working in industry. My sarcastic verbal answer is that I must not like having free time, or getting credit for four hour-long labs. The real reason is because I have a passion for education, especially in the sciences. Children are our future and as such need to be educated. I believe one of the key reasons why the United States is the great nation that it is today is because of the educational opportunities that we offer the masses. This way, we have a larger pool for our leaders of tomorrow to be pulled from. It is our job as teachers to educate these masses and even if they don’t become the leaders of tomorrow, they are going to fulfill important roles in society. We owe the American Dream to the younger generations; they deserve not only the opportunities that we had, but even more opportunities. I would like to see every child pursue the path of success and tap into their unlimited potential. While this is a wonderful dream, it is not realistic. Due to many factors such as, but most certainly not limited to learning disabilities, substance abuse, violence, incurable diseases, inadequate family involvement, not all students will come close to their actual potential. Above and beyond giving children an education in our field, we are to help them overcome these problems and to succeed in life. By giving a child an education, we are giving them a future. There are many ways in which we can overcome many of these problems. Learning disabilities are becoming less of a disadvantage these days due to in and out of class support and diverse teaching methods. By catering to multiple intelligences and helping students find their niches in school, we are helping them stay away from drugs and violence by giving an alternate venue to express themselves. Students are us ually better off if they have a family that is actively involved and supportive of their education. As educators we must plan programs for those students who are deficient in this area, we must also be supportive and supply the students with a conducive environment for education.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Kentucky Fried Chicken History Essay

The company operates with five long-term measures identified as essentials of corporate growth and progress .. 1 International Expansion ‘Yum! Brands number-one goal is to drive global expansion with its category- leading brands. In 2002, the company opened a record 1,051 new international estaurants and increased international system sales 9% prior to foreign currency conversion. ‘ 2. Multibrand Innovation & Expansion ‘Yum! Brands is the worldwide leader in multibranding, offering consumers more choice and convenience at one restaurant location from a combination of two of the company’s brands. The company and its franchisees today operate over 1,975 multibrand restaurants, generating over $2 billion in annual system sales. Approximately 350 new systemwide multibrand restaurants were opened in 2002. ‘3. Portfolio of Category-Leading U. S. Brands ‘U. S. ystemwide same-store sales increased approximately 4% while U. S. same-store sales at company restaurants increased approximately 2% in 2002. ‘4. Global Franchise Fees ‘Global franchise fees, a significant factor in annual profits and cash flow, grew 6% to $866 million. Global franchise net restaurant growth was 2% in 2002. ‘ 5. Strong Cash Generation and Returns ‘Yum! Brands generated over $1. 3 billion in cash from all sources in 2002, more than fully funding capital expenditure needs, allowing free cash flow for share repurchase, and some repayment of debt. Return on invested capital is 18%, in the estaurant industry’s top tier. ‘ Culture Big on diversity in the workplace Promotes differences in background, ethnic cultures, and values – oriented environment Focuses on teaching everybody something new Promotes unity in the workplace Team- Focuses on building relationships and creating diversity and commitment within the company and amongst employees and customers Organizational Structure and Design KFC is part of a divisional structure, which is Yum! Brands, Inc. – Long John Silver’s, A;W, Taco Bell, and Pizza Hut are the other divisions – Offers positions to change and growth – KFC works to bring recognition and money to Yum! Brands, Human Resource Management We won’t make you wing it’ is KFC’s motto when it comes to training employees. Training includes: 1) Workbooks 2) Quizzes 3) On-the-Job competency based training Employees are encouraged to work together as a team their people grow to their highest potential interesting and exciting for workers Social Responsibility KFC is committed to making sure KFC does their best to make the Job KFC has made it their responsibility to consumers that they will provide quality chicken in a fast, efficient way. They also say that their meat comes about ethically and through humane treatment. This has not always proved true in the past, since the PETA has become involved with their warehouses that ‘grow’ the chickens. KFC has made statements to the patrons of KFC, though, that the chickens will not be treated badly in the progression from birth to the processing plant. KFC sponsors a reward for senior citizens, those who live life to the fullest and are recognized in their community ‘ KFC also has the Colonel’s Kids program, a charity organization that helps kids become educated and grow up in a better world han that which they have known. It addresses the child care crisis and steps up to the plate to help out where possible. ‘ Scholarships and diversity programs are a part of KFC’s social responsibility as well Recently, the PETA group secretly recorded a worker at the Pilgrim’s Pride, one of the processing plants, beating a live chicken against the wall in order to kill it. As soon as KFC was notified of this treatment, they immediately submitted a written statement saying that the treatment was ‘appalling’ and took action immediately, placing an animal welfare expert at the plant to ensure he ethical, humane treatment of the chickens. The statement said that: â€Å"We do not tolerate animal abuse by any of our suppliers, under any circumstance. ‘ KFC also told the company Pilgrim’s Pride that, â€Å"unless they can definitively assure us there are absolutely no abuses taking place, we will not purchase from this Moorefield, West Virginia, facility. ‘ PETA says that more action should be taken, but KFC has done all it can to ensure that people are happy with the facilities and means by which their food comes about.

Kurt Vonnegut’s Cats Cradle Analysis

Ben Fisher Mr. Anderson AP Writing and Composition 1 14th November 2012 Cat's Cradle American Author Analysis by Ben Fisher Cat's Cradle by Kurt Vonnegut is a science fiction book that was published in 1963. The book is (falsely thought to be)centered around the narrator, John, and his quest to write a book about what was happeneing with the creators of the atomic bomb the day the first bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. His adventure follows his travels as he meets with researchers, the children of a fictional Dr. Felix Hoenikker, and ventures to an island nation to talk to the good doctors final son.Along this course, he explains a religion he does not yet have, as this is from a post-experience diary perspective, called Bokononism, and its practices. He gains knowledge of this religion and its creation on the island of San Lorenzo, which resolves in him becoming president. But this is a side plot of the book. The main plot, hidden in the background, is centered around a ficticious sub stance called Ice-Nine, with the power to freeze all the worlds oceans in the blink of an eye if it were to touch a single water source, an expression of mans' ability to destroy the things that surround him.Cat's Cradle is set in an unknown year more than 20 years after August 6th, 1945. At the beginning, John visits Ilium, New York to talk to Dr. Asa Breed at General Forge and Foundry, the place in which Felix Hoenikker â€Å"worked†, which leads to his discovery of several key locations in the area. The later half is focused on the fictional Carribean island of San Lorenzo, an island nation started by Earl McCabe, a marine deserter, and Bokonon, born Lionel Boyd Johnson, who created Bokononism.These settings leave a sense of a tight dichotomy between modern America and the Caribbean nation of San Lorenzo. Though the concept of the book within, about the bombing of Hiroshima, and a freeze frame of the events of that day, reveals a young nation holding infinite power in a va st expanse of nothingness. The concept of San Lorenzo as a country in location is central to the happenings of the book. To contrast this idea of self destruction is the concept of Bokononism, a religion outlawed on the island after being created by one of its founders.Christianity is the official religion, but both Protestantism and Catholicism are illegal, and every single citizen of the island celebrates Bokononism even with the threat of the â€Å"hy-u-o-ook-kuh†, representing how San Lorenzan natives pronounce the Hook, a giant fish hook that a Bokononist is threatened to be speared upon if they are caught practicing Bokononism. Though this concept is really an illusory ploy created by Bokonon and McCabe, and perpetrated by the island's leader, â€Å"Papa† Monzano, to give hope in pure foma, or harmless untruths, that form a religion that gives hope and reason instead of defining how you should live.You exist to serve the wampeter of you karass whilst avoiding gra nfalloons and trying to find kan-kans that leads the creation of more sinookas that lead to a procces of vin-dits. All the while you may be bothered by stuppas and pool-pah, but when you are busy, busy, busy, you will truly understand your situation, and in your zah-mah-ki-bo, you may lead yourself to think, â€Å"Now I will destroy the whole world†. All this while, you may connect to another, boko-maru will most likely lead to you finding your path. * *Translated: In short, the book is lies.Your life is based around serving the central theme of you group (wampeter of your karass) and avoiding intermingling into false groups (granfalloons), and finding items that help your cause (kan-kans) To create tendrils to intertwine others into your life (sinookas) causing shoves towards Bokononism (vin-dits). A fogbound child (a stuppa) or a shitstorm/the wrath of God (pool-pah) may try to mislead yourself, but eventually tou will think about the complicated and unpredictable machinery of life (busy, busy, busy) and will find your inevitable destiny (zah-mah-ki-bo) leading you to your task unknowingly.This may end in suicide (Now I will destroy the whole world) due to the duffle placed upon a stuppa (a fate of many placed on one who knows, nor can find, nothing). The idea of boko-maru is supposed to be a very sensual experience that connects two people deeply. Though at any time, your spirit is orbiting an object of great importance, your karass around a wampeter. The person who secondhandedly introduces us to these concepts is not our protagonist. It is our narrator, a minor character in his own aspects, but the only one that is left later, though he never truly matters.He is simply around to be an expositor of the actions of others, a minor characters sharing the traits of a protagonist. The true protagonist of the story, or which the story revolves around, is Felix Hoenikker, a fictitious addition to the Manhattan project team. He is portrayed as an odd man in capable of conventional thought or process, but able to think up and create brilliant objects in moments when presented with a problem. His mind otherwise wandered his whole life, and he was emotionless and apathetic towards anything but his work.His children, Newton, Franklin, and Anglea, play major rolls constructing the story for the narrator, exposing themselves as as weird as their father. Their mother, Emily, plays a minor roll in the story, but a major roll in a shift in the good doctors attitude that would barely be noticed by most, including his own children. Bokonon and Earl McCabe are presented as opposing forces, one being the founder and continual contributor of Bokononism, the other of a government willing to convict those practicing to keep the concept practical.This provides the whole concept of possibility for the ending of the book. One Julian Castle once owned the island and used it as a sugar plantation, and by all means is one of the most complex and thoughtful (see: evil/diabolical) characters in the book, running a humanitarian aid hospital in the jungle of San Lorenzo. He works alongside one Schlicter von Koenigswald, a former S. S. member that had worked in Auschwitz doing various unnamed evil tasks, now working at the Hospital of Hope and Mercy to atone for his sins.The main characters progress in that they gain a concept of both brotherhood and false family through their karass. By the end, the narrator has gone through rage, happiness, depression, excitement, and finally, he tells himself the truth. He becomes what he once feared, but does not fear what he becomes. The revelations that bring about this change are rather odd. At the beginning, John introduces that this is a book written about the events that brought about the end of the world.John is writing a book about the day of the dropping of the Little Boy on Hiroshima. This leads to a discussion with Dr. Asa Breed, the man who supervised Felix Hoenikker, the fictional forefath er of the atomic bomb. They discuss that the good doctor was very flittery minded, and worked on whatever he felt like. Once, they asked him if he could create something to turn mud to solid ground in seconds. He said it was impossible, and Dr. Breed believed it was never created. The truth is the good Doctor created the substance, named Ice-9, in small portions.John follows the trail to the son of Doctor Hoenikker, Newt, and his sister, Angela, a painting and a clarinetist, respectively. They all end up meeting on a flight to San Lorenzo, where John heads after learning Frank Hoenikker, the middle son of Doctor Hoenikker, had become the Major General of San Lorenzo. It is later revealed that this was achieved by using a sample of Ice-9 as a bargaining chip, trading it for the position after washing up on the shore after a shipwreck.The separate chunks, carried by Franklin, Newton, and Angela, were created when the good Doctor, whilst on vacation at his summer home, was playing arou nd with his original sample in his spare time. Whilst on the island, â€Å"Papa† Monzano becomes sick, and declares that Franklin will become the next president, and requests Bokononist burial rights. Franklin passes the buck on to John, asking him if he would take the position if he could marry Mona. He accepts, and plans to change the law so Bokononism may be practiced, but sees it has been outlawed such as to carry a flame of hope for all residents of the island.As he prepares to assume the position, â€Å"Papa† Monzano kills himself declaring that he â€Å"will destroy the whole world†, and freezing himself with his sample of Ice-9. Angela, Newton, John, and Franklin attempt to destroy any samples of Ice-9 and the corpse, but during a staged bombing run, one of the planes crash into the cliffside mansion and knock his body into the water, freezing the whole world solid. John and Mona takes refuge in a chamber built by â€Å"Papa† Monzano for the same reason, and they survive to see it in wreck, tornadoes reigning supreme, the sky a blanket of everlasting storms.Mona, upon finding most of the population frozen, tastes a small sample of the snow created by Ice-9, and dies instantly. John then happens upon the others who survived in the remains of the castle, and shortly thereafter meets Bokonon. The possible final words of the Books of Bokonon, driving the narrator subconsciously and consciously throughout the book, are well thought out, but only in the moment. â€Å"If I were a younger man, I would write a history of human tupidity; and I would climb to the top of Mount McCabe and lie down on my back with my history for a pillow; and I would take form the ground some of the blue-white poison that makes statues of men; and I would make a statue of myself, lying on my back, grinning horribly, and thumbing my nose at You Know Who. † Throughout the book, constant references are made to the book within the book about the creati on of the atomic bomb. Along these lines, Cats Cradle itself is an allegory about the destructive power of man when faced with an object of great potential that can be so easily mishandled.Ice-9 represents the arms race, and is a literalization of the phrase â€Å"Cold War†. Taking the context of the stringent political atmosphere between America and Cuba/Soviet Russia at the time, Vonnegut creates the theoretical isle of San Lorenzo for the bringers of doom, much as the Americans perceived Cuba could bring about the same end in an alternative fashion. Nuclear winter makes a strong connection, along with the toxicity of the snow that is brought about, along with the changes in weather and atmosphere. I opened my eyes—and all the sea was ice-nine. The moist green earth was a blue-white pearl. The sky darkened. Borasisi, the sun, became a sickly yellow ball, tiny and cruel. The sky was filled with worms. The worms were tornadoes† (P. 151). The true severity of the arms race is also parodied by the easy manner in which â€Å"Papa† Monzano brings about the end, with just a touch of the material to his tongue, similar to how with just the touch of a button over a faulty Early Detection System, the world could be brought to Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD).Kurt Vonnegut, as he has done in many of his pieces, inserted his own consciousness to portray John, allowing him to insert his own perspective on any scene in which he is included. Though John only represents parts of his personality, and is not wholly the same. Through a combination of conversation, observation, and presentation of the conceptual ideas of this parallel reality, the exploration of practical destruction. Relevant to this information is his personal experiences in the happenings of war and the propensity of our people to complete these actions.Today, this book is a paradoxical, if not accurate, mirror to the climate at the time. Cold and drastic, not an inch to budge or you'd get bombed to smithereens. In this way, Kurt Vonnegut challenged a major part of what was considered standard for a novel, and instead wrote what he felt would move correctly, and for that he is remembered. â€Å"In the beginning, God created the earth, and he looked upon it in his cosmic loneliness.And God said, â€Å"Let Us make living creatures out of mud, so the mud can see what We have done. † And God created every living creature that now moveth, and one was man. Mud as man alone could speak. God leaned close to mud as man sat, looked around, and spoke. â€Å"What is the purpose of all this? † he asked politely. â€Å"Everything must have a purpose? † asked God. â€Å"Certainly,† said man. â€Å"Then I leave it to you to think of one for all this,† said God. And He went away. † I thought this was trash. (Pg. 153)