Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Neorealist Aesthetics on Rome Open City and 8 1/2 Essay

IntroductionTo critically evaluate the influences of neo real(a)ist aesthetics on Rome, clear-cut urban center (1945) and 8 (1963) I believe in that respect be s incessantlyal measure I grant to take. First of all, I believe it is essential to get a clear understanding of Italian neorealism and the common aesthetics of neorealist necessitates. Once I have that established it exit enable me to critically evaluate the influences of neorealist aesthetics on Rome, bluff City and afterwards, 8, drawing them both together in the conclusion. The end of instauration War II, and Mussolinis fascist regime in 1945 enabled a guinea pig demand movement to flourish in Italy. This movement was branded Italian neorealism, and with its unique aesthetic style and themes it produced, arguably, some of the intimately influential celluloids ever made. Neorealism was seen to be a perfect way for Italian holdmakers to portray the misadventure and suffering they, and the entire nation exper ienced throughout this period of repression. Martha Nochimson describes Italian neorealism as A strong form of filmic poetry that aims for truth in its stories about the poor and the work class, without utilise the glamorizing techniques that Hollywood prefers, (that) can only(prenominal) be fully unders withald at bottom the context of Italian affable and political history.Italian neorealism has distinctive stylistic qualities that give it an al some docudrama, newsreel finger to the films. Neorealists believed this greatly added to the sureity of each film and depicted life at that time in a more(prenominal) realistic way. Common characteristics of neorealist films are that they are shot on location, commit non-professional or relatively un subsistn, untried actors, have plain and simple mise-en-scene, avoid complex editing, have a straight forward, feely moving documentary style of photography and have a loosely dappleted record. Martha Nochimson summerises this per fectly in stating that Neorealists insisted on taking their television cameras into real locations, using natural light and sound, and stripping their characters of synthetic enhancements. They frequently experimented with using non-professional and young unknown actors in order to avoid the carefully deliberate mannerisms of the star.As well as having a distinctive style, neorealist films in addition tended to have thematic similarities too. They generally placed emphasis on the contemporary situation, cogitate on the struggles of the lower class, marginalised population in spite of appearance society and often avoided the accomplished Hollywood, happy-ever-after endings. Rome, Open City is considered by many to be one of the most influential films ever made, and as a result it firmly devote Italian neorealism on the map in conception picture palace. Due to the achievement starting virtually immediately after the occupying Germans departed, whoreson dark-skinned des cribed, that the devising of the film was carried out in the worst possible conditions.Because Rome was still recovering from the devastating impact the war had on the city Rossellini had no other choice but to use real locations as the film studios within the area had either been bombed, or were being used as shelter for refugees affected by the destruction of the city. Marcus Millicent points out other obstacles Rossellini approach during the production, he states, the lack of studio space, the absence of sophisticated equipment, and the scarcity of film stock forced Rossellini to adopt the simplicity of means that was responsible for the authentic and uncontrived look of his finished product.These conditions, resulting in the need for improvisation, were also adjust for most films produced during the height of neorealism up until its rapid decline in the betimes 1950s. However some critics argue that the conditions Rossellini faced have been exaggerated, especially in regard s to the poor film stock he was believed to use. Christopher Wagstaff points out, The look of Rome Open City has been attributed to poor film stock, yet the film was beautifully photographed by Ubaldo Arata on entirely appropriate film stock, one kind for interiors and some other for exteriors. One of Rome, Open Citys main neorealist characteristics is the thematic cut backs the film covers.Typical the neorealist films, Rome, Open City depicts the struggle of the poor, working class people within society at that time, in this case, as they try and resist the German occupation. Despite the obvious neorealist theme, critics have argued that Rossellini has deviated from neorealism within the narrative as he relies heavily on the use of melodrama within the plot and uses techniques to over dramatize the epic moments he has created within the film, for usage the use of none diagenic sound during the scene of Pinas death is not a technique that is typically used in neorealist as it defers too much from reality itself.Stephen Hanson even goes as far a stating, its plot is highly melodramatic in the worst sense of the word. Peter tanned supports this view, he argues that Rossellini, pawns off his  fictions as if they were realities in the best tradition of Hollywood. not only do critics argue that Rossellini over dramatizes the plot, they also believe that he adopts a more linear narrative compared to the typical neorealist film. Peter brown argues that Rome, Open City is, one of Rossellinis most unoriginal films, at least in terms of its narrative and dramatic structures. He believes this conventional narrative style bears no benefit to the film and even goes on to state, Here, unlike in his previous films, all elements of the mise-en-scene, lighting, dialogue, and everything else, however realistic, are rigorously enlisted in the service of a linear narrative.Rossellinis use of mainly non-professional actors is a clear neorealist aesthetic within the f ilm, however Peter Brunette argues that Rossellini did not abide by this neorealist trend entirely, as he points out, (Anna) Magnani (who plays the role of Pina) was hardly a newcomer to the screen-she had already some xvi films to her credit since her first role in 1935, and continues to add that she was, well know to Italian audiences. A final neorealist stylistic quality Rossellini used in Rome, Open City, that seemingly cant be disputed is the non-elaborative mise-en-scene. separately characters costume was typical of what would have been wearing at the time the film was set, as we can see in externalise 1. of Pina, just before her death, with several other women.In contrast to Rome, Open City, 8 varies greatly in regards to neorealism, however, Federico Fellini had strong connections to the neorealist movement and these influences can be seen in certain aspects of 8. One of his first roles in cinema was to work alongside Rossellini for Rome Open City and Paisa (1946) as a s criptwriter, which progressively led to him making his own films. Although Fellinis first films were considered neorealist, (For example, pattern fainthearteds (1950) and The White Sheik (1952)) he soon moved away from neorealism and with 8 he produced a film that devotes much more effort to dreams, fantasise and imagination than it does to reality. However, if you look solely at the scenes that are set in Guidos reality you can soon identify the influence neorealism has had on Fellinis work. The free moving camera style that gave neorealist films a documentary feel to it is also evident in 8. During the scene where Guido enters the hotel and is systematically bombarded and hassled by everyone, unable to get a moments plot of ground is a perfect example of how Fellini adopts this style.Throughout this scene the shots are also considerably long, (which is another stylistic quality many neorealist films possess) as the camera tracks Guido making his way through the hotel lobb y. It can also be argued that 8 has a greater neorealist quality to it than Rome, Open City in regards to the narrative and plot. Many neorealist films are not hung up on plot, and are more interested in providing a realistic slice of life of the characters world (for example, Bicycle Thieves (1948)). As well as the lack of a non-linear story, Fellini is influenced greatly by neorealist aesthetics as he uses real location throughout 8. Although particular scenes in 8 have aesthetic similarities and influences derived from neorealism, the film as a whole is has little relevance to neorealism in most aspects.For example there are very little thematic similarities as a typical neorealist film concentrates in portraying the poverty, suffering and onerousness of the working class, 8 is a semi-biographical film Fellini has based on himself. shite Hirschman describes 8 as, Fellinis most directly autobiographical statement. Another severalize variation from neorealist aesthetics is the f act that Fellini expresses imagination, fantasy and dreams at the expense of realism. To discontinue I believe that the two films discussed in this essay are not the only respective two of their kind, in regard to neorealist films deviating from the traditional aesthetic qualities expected of it, (for example De Sicas neorealist film, Miricale in Milan (1951) explored fantasy, at the expense of its realist qualities,) and Fellinis 8 is of course, not the only film to be influenced by neorealism. any(prenominal) critics even question neorealist aesthetic qualities further and argue because of the very record of film production it is impossible to create an entirely realist film, Christopher Wagstaff questions a films realism by arguing Within the narrative of a film, meanings can be signified indexically if a little boy bursts into weeping in a given narrative context, the meaning might be that he is frightened, disappointed or angry- the emotion caused the behaviour but in reali ty the actor (whether professional or not) cried because the director told him to. Peter Brunette even goes as far as stating, the only valid opened for realist cinema is the impossibility of realist cinema.Bibliography8 / Otto e mezzo, dir. by Federico Fellini (Colombia Pictures, 1963) Aumont, Jacques, Aesthetics of moving picture (Austin University of Texan Press, 1992) Bicycle Thieves/ Ladri di biciclette, dir. by Vittorio De Sica (Ente Nazionale Industrie Cinematografiche, 1948)Bondanella, Peter, The engages of Federico Fellini (UK Cambridge University Press, 2002) Brunette, Peter, Roberto Rossellini (Berkeley Univerity of California Press, 1996) Forgacs, David, Sarah Lutton and Geoffrey Nowell-Smith, Roberto Rossellini Magician of the Real (UK British hit Institute, 2000) Gottlied, Sidney, Roberto Rossellinis Rome open city (UK Cambridge University Press, 2004) Hirschman, Jack, Film Reviews, Film Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 1, (1963) Hanson, Stephen. L, Roma, citt aperta ( 2012) < http//www.filmreference.com/Films-Ra-Ro/Roma-Citt-Aperta.html> accessed 20th March 2012 Millicent, Marcus, Italian Film in the Light of Neorealism (New Jersey Princeton University Press, 1986) Miracle in Milan/ Miracolo a Milano, dir. by Vittorio de Sica (Criterion Collection, 1951) Nochimson, Martha. P, World on Film an introduction (UK John Wiley and Sons, 2010) Rome, Open City/Roma, citt aperta, dir. by Roberto Rossellini (Minerva Film Spa, 1945) Sparshott, F. E, elementary Film Aestheics, Journal of Aesthetic Education, Vol. 5, No. 2, (1971) The White Sheik/ Lo Sceicco Bianco, dir. by Frderico Fellini (OFI, 1952) Variety Lights/ Luci del Variet, dir. by Federico Fellini (Capitolium, 1950) Wagstaff, Christopher, Italian Neorealist Cinema An Aesthetic Approach (Toronto University of Toronto Press, 2007)

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