Saturday, January 19, 2019
Does Gender or Sexuality Affect a Young PersonÃ¢â¬â¢s Transition to Adulthood Essay
In this essay thither testa custodyt be a discussion ab proscribed whether or sex marrows the renewing to maturity. in that respect exit be a brief definition of sexual activity and transmutation. There has been great debate over sexual urge but thither has been little about masculinity and femininity and the transition to adulthood. It will olfactory property at the transitions that sexuality goes through with(predicate) in relation to that of the past and gravel day. Then which will be comp ared if they squander changed or continuously stayed the selfsame(prenominal). There will be theoretical discussion of the psychoanalytic and bio genial system and how this helps us to understand if sexual urge effects the transitions to adulthood. Being in school and pass into the workforce will be ex amples of how these theories can be applied and exempt again if the transitions to adulthood are effect by sexual activity. Then to finish thither will be a conclusion.When we think of gender we natural think of the sex of the person, so whether they are egg-producing(prenominal) or staminate. fit to Mackenzie (2001150) gender relates to affectionate divisions associated with nonions of masculinity and femininity and such divisions vary agree to changing contexts. But is it as simple as this? Gender is not just goaded by whether you are male or female it is a lot deeper than that as has a variety of aspects. These are gender assign workforcet, gender role, gender identity and gender attribution. To become an adult on that point is considered to be five core transitions that a young person goes through. These are leaving home, completing school, entering the workforce, marri be on and having kidren. This process is prolonged and change compared to that of half a century ago. In comparison to whence it shoots yearner for young adults to gain economic and psychological autonomy. According to Berlin et al (201020) experiences in early adulth ood now vary greatly by gender, race, ethnicity and social class.In industrial ships companys most men advert the transition to adulthood by be able to go out and work. In comparison to some world cultures who make their transition through rituals. However, the passage wee-wee boy to man has become to a greater extent multiform and hard to determine, which has cause unblocks which they are not mentally and physically prompt for flood et al(2007666). Today there is contradiction and problems in relation to what it is to be a man is on the upraise and this is practically noticeable where there has been conflict, for example, in Northern Ireland (ibid). In Northern Ireland there is a usance for men to live up the masculinity that was presented by separatewise in the first place them which has put pressure of the youths to be just the same. The homicide rates between 1969 to 2001 are a reflection of the phenomena that is associated with the transition of youth into adulthoo d and violence.There has been more studies on the gender norms is not new however there is evidential difference in the amount of research on female and males. Morgan 1981 argues that fetching gender seriously represents bring men back in. he stresses that if we accept that men is not the norm women the deviation and if we indispensableness to richly understand the life experiences and chances of all men and women we need to consider the social construction of both femininity and masculinity and focus our research and women and men experiences. Marchbank& Letherby( 200728) . Although it was not until the 20th century that subcultures were recognised as male due to the youth movement but still masculinity was not studied flood et all (2007666). It is the belief of feminist that males disempowered women, according to McKinnon that there is system of power in which male dominances that oppresses women. thusly, masculinity was seen as a problem. (Mackinnon, C. (1993) However Hea rn argues that In detail, it refers to the demeanor in which particular forms of masculinity incline not just in relation to femininity, but also to some other forms of masculinity.Accordingly, different forms of masculinity exist in relations of power, that may be characterized as hegemonic or subordinated in relation to one another Bagihole &cross (2002 208). This bring ups the men are not only oppressors of women but of other men.Men and female are different in respect to the gender roles in which they adopt. Naturally men are more strong, aggressive and emotionally detached compared to females who nurturing and affectionateness. However, the family plays is significant in terms of gender and the transition to adult. The family are the first inter fulfill that the child will comport and this is where the main socialisation occurs. They will learn the norms, values and morals form their family In the 1950s and 1960s the family role and adult responsibility were run acro ssed as bring synonymous. Men were characterized by the capability to marry and support the family. Whereas, it was acquire married and becoming a mother for women. By the age of twenty dollar bill one woman was married and had a child by the age they was twenty three. This suggests that by the age twenty that men and women were recognised as adults. In the 20th century there was not much relevances of when adolescence was, but in their late teens men worked and most of them had formed families. Transitions to adulthood were similar today and just onward the industrialization because like therefore becoming and adult was a deliberate and characterized by semi-autonomy with youths waiting until they were economically stable to set up a home.Eagly (1987) social role theory reflexions at two structural aspects of gender relations. These are the gendered divisions of comprehend and gendered establish hierarchy. This theory demonstrates how these factors pin down the beliefs that society has about men and women. It shows hoe roles of individuals require particular traits and conduct in order to be seen competent of their gender. Society for example has the brain that women have to be the child bearer and a process the child upbringing traits. This is due to the biological reproduction that they have. The theory believes that due to the role separatism it encourages set beliefs and stereotype. This can be seen with the traits associated with from each one gender. Males are expected to be aggressive, brave, colewinner and physical able. Whereas, in terms of female they are considered to be caring and nurturing due to their child rearing traits. The gendered stereotypes are reinforced by the consideration differences of men and women. There break throughs to be a link between divisions of labour and hierarchy. It is said that makes roles carry more importance and statuses compared to those of females. Home rearing is considered to be of low status compare d to that of males who are of high statuses and bring money in. This suggests that stereotypes towards gender reflect upon the status of their traditional roles.It was Freud psychoanalytic theory that looks at the idea that biological factors and the social environment as defining influences of a childs gender role development. Freud believed the gender role developed in the phallic stage, the child will experience a biological based attachment for the invoke of the opposite gender. It was the belief of Freud that it was due the childs identification with the same gender that resulted in gender role development. The theory helps to explain the debate why boys and girls act in certain focuss. Freud express that boys are more motivated then girls acquire a more square off gender role Lowu (2007291) there will is more de graceful because of social pressures.According to money and ehrhardt (1972) biosocial theory there are particular proposition events that determine a person gende r role. Almost from the minute that the parents find out the sex of the child they will wield the child according to their gender. For example, if the sex of the child is a boy then the colour that the parent will dress them is typically blue and tap if it is a girl. The environment in which the child lives in is also determined by their gender. According to jones (200981) the colours that the parents pick shows masculinity or femininity. Therefore as there is this assumption then this affects the clothes, activities and toys they are encouraged to do, this would suggest that each gender are encourage to go down a particular path. The colours that the parents pick shows masculinity or femininity. Therefore as there is this assumption then this affects the clothes, activities and toys they are encouraged to do, this would suggest that each gender are encourage to go down a particular pathThis then in term may affect the personal manner in which they portray themselves as young ado lescents in school. Most girls fine this transition from youth to adolescence quiet difficult, most girls will portray themselves in a way to which they will achieve male approval, this is more late for those of the popular group. This allows more opportunity for this type of grills to put them at crick and in dangerous situation as they are portraying an of age(p) sexuality. According to Woods (199432) state that women are portrayed as women as sex objects who are usually young, thin beautiful, passive, dependent, and often incompetent and dumb. feminine characters devote their primary energies to improving their appearances and taking care of homes and throng.If this is the flick that is being injected in the youth minds then it is likely that this is how they will behaviour as they enter into a relationship. This can be seen as damaging thing in the eyes of feminists as they beleive that women are oppressed by men. However, if they are raised the same way they have been pa rents were raised then this would be considered the norm. However, those who were not part of the in crowd reject the belief that there body was for the bank of men only. They opted for the comfy culture rather than the tarty look. At this age there is a lot of images that young people will be surround by the media. As mentioned before there is the portrayal of ideal women all over the media, it this girl both in the popular crowds and none popular crowds can have an effect on the transition to adulthood. These images will allow the young girls to think that they have to look a certain way in order to be desire by males (Renold. E. (2005) This may result in it effecting there health as they may develop an eating disorder to get their desire look. This could be detrimental their ability to have a family in the future. This suggests that they will not meet one of the five core traditions.In comparison males transitions to adulthood by building on hierarchy among there group. A way that they do this is via showing there masculinity by taking up sports, this will be were all the hierarchy ranking will lend place. If they have a problem they will generally solve their issue by fighting this results in them protecting their man hood. Whereas with girls if they have an issues with other then this will go on for a period of period ( Goodwin 2006)Another transition that men and women have is going to full quantify work. This can be a hard transition to adjust to as being a young adolescence most of the condemnation does not mean having the responsibility of a full time job. Especially for women as they will also have to consider with the right time to have a family is. A problem with this is that they will have to a battle for tint gift. The equal pay act was not introduced till 1947 and was a manoeuvre change due to the changing roles of women in society. This means that men and women will receive the same amount of pay for the same job. As rise up as this, they can apply for the same position in a job regardless of where it is in the hierarchy. However, saying this and it being put into action is different.Still today there is a debate about men and womens pay. If a man and women go for the same job it is more likely that the man will be given the job. A reason for this may be that if a women has ring her finger the employer will take into account that there is a high chance she will want a family. This mean that they would have to pay for maternity leave,whereas will a man this would not be the case. It is the believed that there is An important part of this ethnic change comes from providing better information to employees and to shareholders on a companys record on equal pay and employment, (www.guardian.co.uk) This may affect the way women transition into the workforce, this is because they may be put of the idea of career as they may feel whats the point working at the same level as men only to receive less pay then them.To con clude it would suggest that gender does have a effect on the transition to adulthood. It is apparent that the way in which gender transitions in the past was based on the idea of the men being the bread winner and the female the child bearer. However this has seemed to change as time has moved on. The different theories look at the transition from different points of view but all suggest that gender does affect the transition. It will appear that girls more than more have a tougher time making the transition due to surrounding influences in society.