Saturday, August 31, 2019

Acid Mine Drainage in the Mid-Atlantic Region

Acid Mine Drainage ( AMD ) is presently the chief pollutant of surface H2O in the middle Atlantic part. AMD is caused when H2O flows over or through sulphur-bearing stuffs organizing solutions of net sourness. AMD comes chiefly from abandoned coal mines and presently active excavation. AMD degrades more than 4,500 watercourse stat mis in the middle Atlantic part with the loss of aquatic life, and restricts watercourse usage for diversion, public imbibing H2O and industrial H2O supplies ( U.S. Environmental Protection Urgency, 2009:27 ) South Africa is a water-stressed state. Security of H2O supply has become a cardinal strategic issue every bit good as driver for continued and sustained economic growing and service bringing to the people of South Africa. The South African excavation sector is one of the critical pillars and drivers of the South African economic system. However, excavation activities are besides associated with environmental taint such as acerb mine drainage ( AMD ) . AMD is extremely acidic H2O, normally incorporating high concentrations of metals, sulfides, and salts as a effect of excavation activity. The major beginnings of AMD include drainage from belowground mine shafts, overflow and discharge from unfastened cavities and mine waste mopess, shadowings and ore reserves, which make up about 88 % of all waste produced in South Africa. Drain from abandoned belowground mine shafts into surface H2O systems ( decant ) may happen as the mine shafts fill with H2O. Although the chemical science of AMD coevals is straightforward, the concluding merchandise is a map of the geology of the excavation part, presence of microorganisms, temperature and besides of the handiness of H2O and O. These factors are extremely variable from one part to another, and, for this ground, the anticipation, bar, containment and intervention of AMD must be co nsidered carefully and with great specificity. The gold excavation industry in South Africa ( chiefly the Witwatersrand Goldfield ) is in diminution, but the post-closure decant of AMD is an tremendous menace, and this could go worse if remedial activities are delayed or non implemented. For illustration, acid mine H2O started to pour from defunct flooded belowground mine workings near Krugersdorp on the West Rand in August 2002, taking to contaminated surface H2O. Randfontein and the Wonderfontein Spruit are besides debatable. These instances have received significant media attending, which has been critical of the attempts so far to turn to the jobs. In the absence of redress, there is likely to be well more decant in future, with potentially terrible deductions for aquatic systems. AMD from coal excavation is debatable in the Highveld Coalfield in Mpumalanga, and has been reflected by media attending on the effects of terrible pollution seen in the Loskop Dam and the Olifants River Catchment. It is likely that new coal excavation in the Waterberg Coalfield ( Limpopo Province ) will take to similar jobs in that country in the hereafter ( CSIR: Briefing Note 2009/02 August 2009 ) 2.3.2 Acid Mine Drainage Mine drainage is metal-rich H2O formed from chemical reaction between H2O and stones incorporating sulphur-bearing minerals. The overflow formed is normally acidic and often comes from countries where ore or coal excavation activities have exposed stones incorporating fool's gold, a sulfur bearing mineral. Metal-rich drainage can besides happen in mineralized countries that have non been mined. Acid Mine Drainage occurs as follows: & A ; bull ; Mine drainage is formed when fool's gold, an Fe sulfide, is exposed and reacts with air and H2O to organize sulfuric acid and dissolved Fe ; & A ; bull ; Some or all of this Fe can precipitate to organize the ruddy, orange, or xanthous deposits in the underside of watercourses incorporating mine drainage ; & A ; bull ; The acid overflow further dissolves heavy metals such as Cu, lead, quicksilver into land or surface H2O ; & A ; bull ; The rate and grade by which acid-mine drainage returns can be increased by the action of certain bacteriums. Impacts of Acid Mine Drainage are as follows: & A ; bull ; Contaminated imbibing H2O ; & A ; bull ; Disrupted growing and reproduction of aquatic workss and animate beings ; and & A ; bull ; Corroding effects of acid on parts of substructure such as Bridgess The badness of, and impacts from, AMD/ARD are chiefly a map of the mineralogy of the stone stuff and the handiness of H2O and O some dissolved metals may stay in solution. Dissolved metals in acerb drainage may include lead, Cu, Ag, manganese, Cd, Fe, and Zn, among other metals. Elevated concentrations of these metals in surface H2O and groundwater can prevent its usage as imbibing H2O or aquatic home ground ( Banister et al. , 2002:4 ) . 2.3.3 Acid Drainage Generation Acid is generated at mine sites when metal sulphide minerals are oxidized and sufficient H2O is present to mobilise the sulfur ion. Metal sulfide minerals are common components in the host stone associated with metal excavation activity. Prior to excavation, oxidization of these minerals and the formation of sulfuric acid is a map of natural weathering procedures. The oxidization of undisturbed ore organic structures followed by the release of acid and mobilisation of metals is slow. Natural discharge from such sedimentations airss little menace to having aquatic ecosystems except in rare cases. Mining and mineral extraction operations greatly increase the rate of these same chemical reactions by taking big volumes of sulphide stone stuff and exposing increased surface country to air and H2O. Materials/wastes that have the possible to bring forth ARD as a consequence of metal excavation activity include mined stuff, such as spent ore from pile and dump leach operations, shadowings, and waste stone units, every bit good as overburden stuff. AMD coevals in the mines themselves occurs at the cavity walls in the instance of surface excavation operations and in the belowground workings associated with belowground mines. The potency for a mine or its associated waste to bring forth acid and release contaminations depends on many factors and is site-specific. These site-specific factors can be categorized as coevals factors, control factors, and physical factors. Coevals factors determine the ability of the stuff to bring forth acid. Water and O are necessary to bring forth acerb drainage ; certain bacteriums enhance acerb coevals. Water serves as a reactant, a medium for bacteriums, and the conveyance medium for the oxidization merchandises. A ready supply of atmospheric O is required to drive the oxidization reaction. Oxygen is peculiarly of import in keeping the rapid oxidization catalyzed by bacteriums at pH values below 3.5. Oxidation of sulfides is significantly reduced when the concentration of O in the pore infinites of mining waste units is less than 1 or 2 per centum. Different bacteriums are better suited to different pH degrees and physical factors ( discussed below ) . The type of bacteriums and population sizes change as growing conditions are optimized ( Wade et al, 2002:5 ) Chemical control factors determine the merchandises of oxidization reaction. These factors include the ability of the coevals stone or having H2O to either neutralize the acid ( positive consequence ) or to alter the wastewater character by adding metals ions mobilized by residuary acid ( negative consequence ) . Neutralization of acid by the alkalinity released when acerb reacts with carbonate minerals is an of import agencies of chairing acerb production and can function to detain the oncoming of acerb production for long periods or even indefinitely. The most common neutralizing minerals are calcite and dolomite. Merchandises from the oxidization reaction, such as H ions and metal ions, may besides respond with other non-neutralizing components. Possible reactions include ion exchange on clay atoms, gypsum precipitation, and disintegration of other minerals. The disintegration of other minerals contributes to the contaminant burden in the acerb drainage. Examples of metals happeni ng in the dissolved signifier include aluminum, manganese, Cu, lead, Zn, and others ( Pulles et al. , 2005:7 ) . Physical factors include the physical features of the waste or construction, the manner in which acid-generating and acid-neutralizing stuffs are placed, and the local hydrology. The physical nature of the stuff, such as atom size, permeableness, and physical weathering features, is of import to the acerb coevals potency. Though hard to weigh, each of these factors influences the potency for acerb coevals and is, hence, an of import consideration for long term waste direction. Particle size is a cardinal concern because it affects

Friday, August 30, 2019

My Clinical Experience Essay

During my first day of clinical, I encountered an issue that I believe is very significant. As a student nurse, our duty for this day was to follow our health care aide around the ward and assist in completing resident care. The resident required assistance in many of her daily tasks. The health care aide asked if I would perform one of those and do perineal care for her. I turned down her offer because I did not feel comfortable with my skill level. The resident had a bowel movement during the night. There was a significant odour in the room that overwhelmed me. I really wanted to leave the room because it was so unpleasant, but I stayed in the room so that the resident would not be embarrassed. This feeling of embarrassment, I assume, was already present but I decided to continue with helping clean up and change her linens. The issue that seemed significant, in this experience, was my feelings pertaining to intimate care. ‘One of the reasons why there is so little training in this area could be because the act of providing intimate care for others can be considered as “dirty work” and is undervalued both within services and by the wider societyÂ’ (Clark, 2006) In society, going to the bathroom is seen as a very private matter and is not done in public. During this experience, this was going against my beliefs of our social norm and understanding this, I went with my values of caring and supporting individuals in need by staying in the room. During this situation, I was trying to achieve my role of a student nurse while being professional in my actions. I did what I believed was right instead of following societies norms. Evaluating the issue with patient and my own personal issues, I made a decision that followed my morals and values. I chose to react positively to the situation at hand while learning from experience and following what I believed was ethically right. Consequences that may have arisen for the patient stem from the fact that my techniques were not like the health care aides and were stiff and uncoordinated, which I can only imagine caused discomfort. It took longer than usual for me to complete my tasks because of my personal doubt in my skill levels and amount of experience. The health care aide I was with initially mentioned that shifts were very tight for time and for getting things done she noted that she comes in early to ensure things run smoothly,  just in case of complications such as my current situation. My health care aide may not feel as confident in my actions as she may have been if I chose to initially participate despite my personal issues with intimate care. Having a loss of confidence in my abilities to deal with difficult and new situations turned out to be the consequences of my actions. Having more confidence and being aware of situations that may go against my beliefs and personal issues may have allowed me to have a better first day. The health care aide was very supportive of my actions and praised my efforts after the fact for stepping in during my first time in a difficult situation. I can imagine the resident was feeling some distress and embarrassment, as she could not control her actions and was very thankful afterward. Although feeling discomfort during the event, I was very pleased afterward. There were a few factors that influence my feelings, thoughts and responses during this experience. The feeling of discomfort in performing intimate care became obvious after the fact when I began reflecting on my clinical experience. I was not prepared for the amount of intimate care that was present. Sensing others` feelings is a trait that I have developed while being present in the health care area and teaching field, and along with my skill level, in nursing played a big part in my thoughts and responses during this experience. Although having cared for my great-grandmother in the past, this was my first day experiencing intimate care with a resident. Participating in practice labs, class discussions and learning activities allowed me to have the knowledge of performing such duties and an understanding of how personal we would be getting, but did not realize how it would affect me. Giving myself time to read up on nursing experiences, attending more clinical practice labs, participating and watching these duties in the health care setting will allow me to develop a secure level of confidence the next time that this type of situation may occur. Staying in the room allowed me to experience the feeling of support while looking past social norms and how they are challenged. I met my personal values, and I believe that one should  respect another person`s privacy. This understanding allowed me to be there to support the resident during her time of need. In the article `starting out` by Jane Schulz, a nursing student shares her experience of helping her colleague assist an elderly patient with daily care. Observing the compassion and care between nurse and patient from fundamental tasks, she took away a valued lesson of how our support and caring methods affect an individual. My relation to this story allowed me to reflect on the effects my care and supporting actions had on our patient. Having completed perineal care on manikins in class has been my only previous experience that I have encountered with intimate care. When presented with new situations, I have a tendency of handling them quite well with confidence. My reaction to intimate care was due to the discomfort with the amount of contact one has with sexual body parts and bodily fluids. I know what to expect if presented with a similar situation in the future, having had the experience I believe that I will understand how to handle my emotions and present a comfortable environment to better care for the patient. The only way I can be comfortable with intimate care is to participate in fundamental caring of patients and learn through experience. If I was to alter my actions by leaving the room instead of staying to help and support my resident, the consequences for my actions may have been due to a lack of confidence in my skill levels from my health care aideÂ’s point of view, and my own. It was apparent that the resident was not comfortable and needed help. Not giving my resident the care she deserves may have left her feeling like she was not important. Leaving the room would add to my view of societyÂ’s norm that going to the bathroom is a private matter and I would not have gained any experience to develop my skill levels and confidence. Reflecting on my clinical experience has made me aware of my strengths and weaknesses in my personal and nursing skills. I have taken a lot away from this experience; as I have come across a personal issue of have trouble dealing with intimate care. I have developed an understanding of social norms and how they can affect ones opinions. This experience has given me the ability to cope in new situations as it is and will always be a part of my job. Developing a way to deal with intimate care to the best of my abilities will allow me to care for my client and make sure their feelings [embarrassment] and privacy are being respected. Coming out of this situation realizing my mistakes, my level of confidence will surely ascend and prepare me for my chosen field. In relation to CarperÂ’s ways of knowing (Carper, 1978), I showed aesthetics by evaluating the situation as a whole. Despite having the urge to leave the room, I recognized the residents need for support when being faced with an issue that defied our social norm. Moving beyond the surface and being physically and mentally in the moment with the resident allowed her to experience the care they deserves through my supportive and helpful actions. I showed ethic ways of knowing when I understood that perineal care is something I believe was morally right. I felt like I had to be there for my patient when they needed me and make sure the care and support was present. Confronting my beliefs changed my opinion on societyÂ’s norms; I used my values and morals to guide my actions. My personal ways of knowing develop through my experience with intimate care. I completed a task that I was not comfortable doing and believed was a private issue. I decided to help in the experience after evaluating the patientÂ’s level of discomfort and need of assistance. Until I experience a similar situation, I will not know if my reactions will be the same, but I will know that I have the skills and ability to do it. I showed my empirical ways of knowing by analyzing the article “Primary Care Nurse PractitionersÂ’ Integrity When Faces with Moral Conflicts” by Carol Ann Laabs in relation to my experience with intimate care. The purpose of this article was to show the study of nurseÂ’s problem with moral integrity in primary care. It concluded that moral conflict is common within an entire group (e.g. staff, team, co-workers) and keeping ones moral integrity makes them feel great about their actions in a fundamental way while keeping on a professional level. This connects to my experience as I was in a situation where I had to make a decision involving my moral integrity and do what I believe I could do based on my values. This experience helped me to challenge my ethical beliefs and make decisions  based on what I believed was right. This experience has changed the way I will look at new situations with intimate care and ones that I will encounter in the future. I discovering that our education can only guide us, but it is the experience that allows us to develop our feelings and beliefs. By completing this reflection of my clinical experience I learnt that I had a hidden personal issue with intimate care. Intimate care is defines as care tasks associated with bodily functions and personal hygiene which demands direct or indirect contact with or exposure of the sexual parts of the body. (Cambridge and Carnaby 2000) With knowledge gained from this experience and from similar future situations, I believe I can develop a comfort in my skill level. Having to adapt to a variety of different situations and conditions is a part of a nurseÂ’s career and with experience and further education, I may come to terms with it and develop as a nurse. Having reflected on my actions, I am confident in my ability to follow my va lues and ethical beliefs while giving my patients my full attention and providing them with the holistic care they are entitled to. Reference Cambridge P, Carnaby S (2000) Making it Personal: Providing intimate and personal care for people with learning disabilities. Pavilion Publishing, Brighton. Retrieved November 7, 2007. Carolyn Ann Laabs (2007). Primary Care Nurse Practitioners’ Integrity When Faced With Moral Conflict. Nursing Ethics, 14(6), 795-809. Retrieved November 7, 2007, from ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source database. (Document ID: 1342892401). Carper, B. A. (1978). Fundamental Patterns of Knowing in Nursing. New York. Aspen Publishers, Inc. Jane Schulz (2007). Starting out. Nursing Standard, 22(3), 29. Retrieved November 7, 2007, from ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source database. (Document ID: 1352629031). Johns, C. (1994). Model of structured reflection. In A. Palmer, S. Burns and C. Bulman (Eds.). Reflective Practice in Nursing: The Growth of the Professional Practitioner (p. 112). Osney Mead, Oxford: Blackwell Science. Julie Clark (2006). intimate care: theory, research and practice. Learning Disability Practice, 9(10), 12-17. Retrieved November 7, 2007, from ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source database. (Document ID: 1196316821).

Female Stereotypes in the Media Essay

Persons with Disabilities Media Portrayals of Girls and Women: Introduction We all know the stereotypes—the femme fatale, the supermom, the sex kitten, the nasty corporate climber. Whatever the role, television, film and popular magazines are full of images of women and girls who are typically white, desperately thin, and made up to the hilt—even after slaying a gang of vampires or dressing down a Greek legion. Many would agree that some strides have been made in how the media portray women in film, television and magazines, and that the last 20 years has also seen a growth in the presence and influence of women in media behind the scenes. Nevertheless, female stereotypes continue to thrive in the media we consume every day. This section of the site provides a snapshot of the issues around the media’s portrayal of women and girls—from effects on body image and self-identity to ramifications in sports and politics. It looks at the economic interests behind the objectification and eroticization of females by the media as well as efforts to counter negative stereotyping. And it provides the latest articles and studies that explore the ways in which media both limit and empower women and girls in society. Media Portrayals of Men and Masculinity: Introduction â€Å"When I was born, they looked at me and said: ‘What a good boy, what a smart boy, what a strong boy! ‘ And when you were born, they looked at you and said:’What a good girl, what a smart girl, what a pretty girl! ‘† â€Å"What A Good Boy,† The Barenaked Ladies For several decades now, media critics and feminists alike have been examining the role of the media in creating and reinforcing stereotypical representations of women and femininity. But only recently have they expanded the research to consider how the media also construct, inform and reinforce prevalent ideas about men and masculinity. This section addresses the representation of men and masculinity in the media. It covers topics such as media stereotypes, the prevalence of male characters in TV and film, and male authority in media news coverage; and it addresses the role that the media play in shaping attitudes about masculinity. The section also provides links to articles and reports on these topics. Media Portrayals of Gays and Lesbians: Introduction Media educators Larry Gross and George Gerbner argue that the media participate in the â€Å"symbolic annihilation† of gays and lesbians by negatively stereotyping them (often consigning them  to the margins of entertainment media, playing either â€Å"colourful† and â€Å"flamboyant† characters or dangerous psychopaths), by rarely portraying them realistically, or by not portraying them at all. Gross and Gerbner argue that the commercial structure of the mass media limits the opportunity for representing diverse characters. Too often networks and film companies shy away from portraying gays and lesbians for fear of alienating or offending advertisers, investors, and audiences. This section addresses the portrayal of gays and lesbians in news, advertising and entertainment media. It also examines homophobia in the media, and provides examples of gay-positive media. Media on Women – Images and Influences It’s no secret that women compare themselves to the female images they see portrayed on television, film, and advertising. At both the conscious and subconscious level, these media images of women lower self-esteem and affect behavior at every age and stage of life. We know they’re unrealistic, yet they exert pressure on women to conform, and influence how we live, love, work and play. Oprah Winfrey – Talk Show Host Oprah Changed Face of Television Before Oprah, you had to look a certain way to be on TV. As a pop culture icon and media pioneer, talk show host Oprah has changed the face of television, and women (and men) love her for it.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

For the US Gov. Exam Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

For the US Gov. Exam - Essay Example g laws, can neither of them consist with the ends of society and government, which men would not quit the freedom of the state of nature for, and tie themselves up under, were it not to preserve their lives, liberties and fortunes; and by stated rules of right and property to secure their peace and quiet.† Thomas Paine (1997, 6), another figure whose influence on early American thinkers cannot be understated, warned in his pamphlet Common Sense â€Å"the king is not to be trusted without being looked after, or in other words, a thirst for absolute power is the natural disease of the monarchy.† With anti-monarchist influences like Locke and Paine, it’s not wonders that the architects of the American constitution constructed a political system that significantly limited the powers of the executive branch and instituted a number of difficult-to-navigate checks and balances. Much debate surrounded the exact role of the President during the early constitutional debates that followed the American Revolution. However, it was universally agreed upon that a strong separation of powers was needed. Much of the debate surrounded exactly how powerful, or how weak, the executive branch, headed by the President, was to be. The founders of the American constitution agreed (MacDonald, 1994, 126) â€Å"that safety and ordered liberty cannot exist without competent government and that government without an executive authority is no government at all.† Ultimately, the founders agreed on a concept that would create a natural and permanent tension between the President, the chief executive, and the members of Congress who were responsible for the legislation of the nation’s laws. They did this be ensuring that the new constitution contained (Thach, 1969, 70)â€Å"no constitutional legal barrier which Congress could not at pleasure cross.† This intuit ional strength that the founders granted Congress would significantly diminish the powers of the American executive, especially when

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

UAE Multinational Corporations' Strategies Term Paper

UAE Multinational Corporations' Strategies - Term Paper Example It is evidently clear from the discussion that an international business is an enterprise or entity that is involved in commercial transactions in two or more than two countries. An international business cuts across boundaries in doing business. The business environments are the surrounding factors that influence the business performance. The business environment can have a number of impacts on business. Before establishing a business in a foreign country; it is imperative to study the business environment to establish the feasibility of a particular business. The economic factors in a given country will influence the habits of the consumer. A good economy is one that has empowered consumers to purchase products they demand thus satisfy their needs. Recession and Inflation influence the purchasing power of consumers. In a market that is undergoing recession, there is a tendency of consumers not to purchase commodities. The recession is usually caused as a result of the scarcity of m oney in the economy. Investors always don’t risk setting up a new venture in a market that is undergoing a recession. This is because produce will not sell as the consumers limit their spending. Inflation is an economic situation where the prices of goods and services shot up hence limiting the consumers’ purchasing power. When there is an increment in the price of goods or services, the consumers anticipate lower prices in the future and thus they do not spend on such commodities. The consumers can also seek alternative products that are relatively cheap and can serve their needs. It is proper to investigate the market before setting up a business venture or marketing a product. Factors that will influence a business venture to be established in an inflated economy are vast. If the good or service being offered does not exist in the new business environment, then it is worth investing there. If the good or service is a primary commodity and will be offered at a relati vely cheaper price then the venture can be set up despite the inflation.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

International Trade Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

International Trade - Essay Example Electrolux is an established brand of the Company, and a mature product in its portfolio. It has gained critical acclaim for meeting most of the customers’ functional needs. Electrolux Tumble Dryer is a product of an American firm and it is sought to be marketed in India through Electrolux label as its product. The game plan is to capture the Indian market for this line of products through a well conceived Disruptive Marketing Strategy. A comparative study of all existing players in the field and observation of emerging trends with potential to impact the market in the coming few years forms the bedrock of this strategy. Thus this Document will be a crucial turning point in the Business History of the Company. The Document examines the position of Electrolux Brand in the context of the Indian Market. It also looks at the Tumble dryer for its strengths and weaknesses and their potential impact on the Indian customer preference. A study of the Market Plan reveals that the merits possessed by Electrolux Tumbler Dryers closely match the needs of a large number of Target markets. The Plan sets targets for Electrolux to penetrate the Indian Market and the ways to do so. This Document identifies some of the major points essential for making an objective analysis of the Indian Market scene with regard to the introduction of this American product. 1.1 Potential Market Size There is an assumption that the developed market of India, with its existing structural setting will control the market position for Tumble dryers. The market is composed of Manufactures from abroad producing in India, Importers, Whole sale traders and retailers. Many of the Foreign Manufacturers are also their own importers. The Wholesale traders generally have composite inventory consisting of several competing products or other allied goods of the same manufacturers. Retail trade also works on the same lines, (Koch, 2001). Some Retailers have significant presence in the retail market. Tumble Dryers are not seen sold in dependent retail shops in India because this product is not yet popular in the society. But survey shows they are willing to prepare and be ready for special orders. Independent shop owners account for about 80% of the Indian Retail Market and the remaining 20% is shared by several different channels. A review of the market in India shows that no proper distribution network is present for Tumble dryers. The potential customers are not even well informed of the existence of the product and its unique advantages. Available purchase points also do not seem to be educating the potential buyers about the product, (Huang, & Sternquist, 2007). Retail Stores in India are very few in number and the Managers do not have any effective stay in the choice of products that make up their stock in trade. International; products are not marketed in this kind of set up. They are sold through Retail Chains where centralized decision making ensures that the shops are invari ably supplied the product in adequate quantity, depending on sales. Therefore introduction of Electrolux Tumbler Dryer to the Indian market may appear to be starting with a disadvantage. Another problem is that the product requires its own, dedicated Gas supply channel.

Monday, August 26, 2019

Final Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 8

Final - Essay Example Driven by the need to nurture my abilities and address my weaknesses I have focused on the resources addressed throughout this semester. Throughout the course, I have realized that I have what it takes to be a leader. This has been informed by various leadership tests I have taken and the reasonably high scores I have registered. However, lack of a guide and a model through which I can nurture the requisite skills has been a major challenge. All the same, I can now recognize a leadership theory that provides a rationale on what I need to work on to be a respectable and inspiring leader. This theory has also been critical in providing a means through which I can construct certain strategies that would provide a means of developing the attributes associated with the type of leader I envision. Authentic leadership theory is a contemporary leadership theory. It emerged in the late 1990s from a broad field of scientific inquiry that highlights positive organizational phenomena leading to enhanced human well-being (Marquis & Huston, 2009). The theory enforces that for one to be considered a leader he must be true to himself and his values and act accordingly. This explains why some scholars also refer to it as congruent theory this is because the leader must match his activities, deeds and actions with his values, beliefs and principles. There are five characteristics which differentiate an authentic leader with the other leaders. The first characteristic is purpose. An authentic leader understands clearly both his purpose and passion. This understanding is nurtured by an ongoing process of self reflection and self awareness. The second characteristic is values, an authentic leader has a clear link between purpose and passion as this is informed and sustained by a clear matc h with his beliefs and actions (Nichols, 2008). The other characteristic is heart an authentic leader looks after his own affairs and has a genuine concern for the

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Recruitment procedures Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Recruitment procedures - Essay Example Immediately after recruitment exercise is over, the selection process starts. Selection is the process of making a choice from a pool of applicants, someone who best meets the specifications of the job in question. In this case he must be someone with the best knowledge and technical skills required of a technical staff. After recruitment and selection there is need to integrate the successful applicant into the job for him/her to adapt to the job requirements, procedure and processes. In our case study, we shall consider the case of a project whereby the technical staff member will be involved in project matters. We shall therefore analyze the recruitment, selection and integration of the staff in relation to an investment project. (Dale, 2001) First the technical manager will advertise the job vacancy that has befallen in the organization. The advertisement must outline the job specification which gives an overview of what the job requirements are. For a technical staff, with respect to a project, the contents of the job specification would include: - After the job has been advertised and the job specification outlined, a preliminary contact is made to the potential candidates. It is advisable to give all the candidates a standard contact. It must be made early enough to avoid locking out potential candidates. Then, initial screening is done to create a pool of qualified candidates. The technical manager would be free to either select the member internally or externally. Internal recruitment would come into play when maybe there is another technical staff member who is ready to be promoted to such a position. But the member must posses the necessary qualifications for such an appointment (internal) to be effective. If this is the case, then the technical manager need not advertise for the job vacancy but make employees aware of the job vacancies. He can do this through newsletters, bulletin, boards and personal recommendations including recommendations by other managers. (Dale, 2001) The advantage of this method is that it motivates employees to work harder so that they can get promotion opportunities. It is also more efficient and less costly because the technical manager would not need to advertise for the job or even contact every candidate individually. Another reason as to why the technical manager should adopt this approach is that already he knows the performance and/ or skills of every staff with regard to project appraisal. It would increase the chances of making a good choice since the people he has in the organization are already known to him in terms of performance. However, there are enough reasons as to why the manager should discard this approach of internal recruitment. Internal recruitment is characterized by an insufficient pool and the best person for the job may not be available from within the organization. Again, people from within the

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Challenging Behavior Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Challenging Behavior - Essay Example Special Educational Needs (SEN) Policy: The Special Educational Needs Policy is the backbone of the policy framework of Hampshire County Council. It serves as a key element for supporting and catering to the needs of children and adolescents between the ages of 0-19 (Hampshire County Council, 2009, p.1-9.). Main Priorities: The main priorities indicated by the policy are the formation of a safer and securer environment of Hampshire for all citizens, the enhancement of the quality of services being provided, responding effectively to the improvements the community wants, meeting the demands of the local people, and maximising well-being and prosperity in the community. SEN provisions of the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act takes account for the appeal of rights of children with special educational needs to study in mainstream schools, a right for nursery education providers, educational institutes to request a statutory evaluation, and assessment of a child and achievement of substantial acts, to ensure the arrangements to provide the parents of children with SEN with services offering advice and necessary information as a means to resolve and refute disputes by enforcing LEA duties. It is a sign of popularity of the policy amongst the community that it has been revised for the period of 2009-2012. This revised policy is responsive to certain changes whilst ensuring that the local authorities fulfil the duties and responsibilities required by the SEN and Disability Act 2001, and improve its standards of quality service provided (Department of Health, 2005, p.2-24). The revised policy focuses upon the progress made by children and young people from their birth to adulthood, in pre-school settings and in schools, and the promotion of their well-being, learning, and achievements. Aims and Objectives: The policy aims to improve and maintain the quality of provision for children with special educational needs wherever it is delivered. It is also striving to recognise further that schools and supporting services collectively provide for the needs of all children in the community. Operating effective assessment systems as early as possible in conjunction and collaboration with other agencies is another objective which has to be reached. Other important aims of the policy include allocation and usage of resources effectively and equitably in an efficient manner, and to assure that partnerships and associations with children, parents/carers and other stakeholders, work effectively (Hampshire County Council, 2009, p.1-9). Mentioned above is the rationale and achievements of SEN, but the following conclusions are obtained on the critical analysis of SEN: Methods: The methodology used involves a review of the related previous literature, a thorough study of the old and revised policies of SEN, Interviews with experts on field and conduction of case studies and surveys. Findings and Recommendations: SEN System lacks in addressing the inacce ssibility of the services to the parents of children with behaviour issues. The parents have to face many challenges in getting the right support for their children. The conflict amongst the local authorities and delay in services has resulted in the undermining of confidence of people. The revised policy is concentrated on the children in the Hampshire County only; the children from other areas are not receiving these privileges and the emphasis on the collaboration of

Friday, August 23, 2019

Reviewing the Decision Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Reviewing the Decision - Essay Example The reason why the manager of "ABC" with whom we work decided that they would manage to promote fully equipped base cabinets in the future was due to the request of one of their key customers for the immediate installation of 25 pcs. of such advanced base cabinets, plus their reasoning that because of the increased convenience of the more expensive base cabinets the same quantity can be rather quickly installed at other locations as well. Considering our general positive experience with "ABC", our history of making similar supplies of equipment which "ABC" quickly exhausted, and their leading position in their market segment, I decided to place the order at the manufacturer for the mentioned amount of equipment. After we brought to our stock 50 pcs. of fully equipped base cabinets, it turned out that by then the key customer of "ABC" bailed out from his liability before them, and the general market response to the prospect of purchase of more expensive cabinets was much less enthusia stic than expected. As the result of the mentioned facts, by this moment we still have on our stock 38 pcs. of fully equipped base cabinets for table-top coffee machines, which translates into 12,500$ of frozen assets.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Speach on ethics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Speach on ethics - Essay Example This disease is caused by a SARS corona virus, and diagnosis of this disease involves detecting the body temperature, hence people with temperatures beyond 380c may be suspected. This process involves the use of modern laboratory methods such as ELISA and X-rays. SARS, as you may be aware, does not have specific treatment, but medics and other scientists are coming up with drugs such as antipyretics, which help improve respiration. According to Paquin (52), there are various prevention measures that our health professionals should implement when dealing with SARS. These include isolation of the infected people from the healthy ones to prevent spreading of this virus. Quarantine should be done to the suspected individuals who may be carrying the infection. All the victims should respect and adhere to all the instructions given by their heath attendants. Having summarized the information about the disease, I would like to support my fellow colleagues who are against the idea of disclos ing SARS information to the public. My ministry and other stakeholders are working hard to fight this disease – to make it just a history and not an epidemic in our city. I wish this disease to be fully eradicated in this country just like small pox; I believe our struggle will bear fruit in due time. If one is diagnosed with the disease, do not cause havoc among other people by telling them he is affected – this should be a personal matter. At the same time, infected people should be granted confidentiality when they seek medical attention and the necessary measures to be taken by health professionals. Paquin (57) states that one should take care and not panic if the infection is suspected; instead, one he should seek medical attention as soon as possible. If you instill fear in people, this will affect our market stocks, since the citizens will not be free to trade, as they will not want to risk being infected. This, in turn, may

Way in Which Piaget and Vygotsky Share Similar Ideas Essay Example for Free

Way in Which Piaget and Vygotsky Share Similar Ideas Essay While both Piaget and Vygotsky were similar in their views in certain ways. Most commonly shared were their views as constructivists (the idea of learning by doing) and believed that social forces set the limits of development. The most obvious difference is their view of cognitive development. Where Piaget felt that cognition develops in four discreet stages that are limited, Vygotsky believed the opposite, that there are no stages and development is continuous. Where there are a few areas that I relate with the theoretical views of John Piaget, I tend to relate more so with those of Vygotsky. Both were strong advocates for students having active participation in their learning. Like Vygotsky, I feel that learning and development are intertwined and in some cases learning can precede development. Vygotsky compared a learner’s actual development to their potential development; this potential area is called the â€Å"zone of proximal development†. When working with the children it is in this area that I observe any potential problem areas where a child might need help as well as recognize where I can push a child a little further in order to get them to reach their maximum potential. As far as instructional strategies, I tend to rely heavily on a Montessori style environment; where discovery, project based learning, and curiosity inducing strategies expands a child’s intellect. As a child care provider I often try to engage my pupil with activities and materials that challenge them. Most toys and instructional material I present to the children are usually slightly above their ages. Where Vygotsky felt that culture plays a large role in development, I too agree that development is improved when social interaction is guided by highly skilled people in the same culture.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Photography Essays History of Photography

Photography Essays History of Photography History of Photography When you look at a photograph from your favorite photographer what do you see? Does it remind you of your past or make you think of the future? What if there was a photographer that made you think of not only the past but also the future as well? Well that is exactly what Abelardo Morell did with his Camera Obscura photographs. Abelardo Morell took Camera Obscura out of the past and brought it into the future. This paper plans to discuss who Abelardo Morell is, the history of Camera Obscura, and also discuss and analyze three or more photographs by Abelardo himself. It will also discuss Abelardo’s career and how Camera Obscura falls into his career as well as any statements from him about the process. Also any writings or responses by art critics and/or philosophers about Abelardo Morell’s work will be included. This paper hopes to bring across to the reader an understanding of Abelardo Morell and Camera Obscura. â€Å"Abelardo Morell was born in Havana. As a child he felt a sense of alienation and isolation in Cuba, feelings that remained when he moved as a teenager with his family to New York City. Although he later studied comparative religion at Bowdoin College, he eventually took up photography as a way to express his feelings as an immigrant to the United States during the turbulent 1960s† (Yorba). Photography took his mind away from all of the busyness the world had. â€Å"After earning an MFA from Yale University in 1981, he began teaching at Massachusetts College of Art in 1983, where he still teaches today† (â€Å"Site Lines,† Abelardo). Many students are extremely luck to have a mentor such as Morell. He went far and beyond what any other teacher would do for their students. â€Å"When I began teaching photography at the Massachusetts College of Art in the mid 1980s, one of the strategies I used to get beginners excited about photography was to convert our cla ssroom into a camera obscura† (Morell). Camera Obscura might sound like a complicated technique but it really is very simple. One would be surprised how easily it can be done. Even though it can be done very easily and may seem like a new technique, the process has been around for many centuries. â€Å"In 1490, Leonardo da Vinci wrote the earliest surviving description of the camera obscura (dark chamber), a device designed to reproduce linear perspective. The camera obscura, the prototype of the photographic camera, was a large dark room that an artist physically entered. Light entered through a small hole in one of the walls and projected a distinct, but inverted, color image onto the opposite wall that could be then traced† (Hirsh). â€Å"The Camera Obscura seems little short of miraculous, even after the optical rationale has been explained. That one pinhole of light can carry all the visual information of a landscape into a darkened room is still, after many centuries, unknown to the great majority of humans and surprising when they learn of it† (Morell). To understand it better the camera obscura was a darkened room or chamber that allowed only a pinhole of light to enter into a light tight area through which is called an aperture. Diffraction is what allows camera obscura to work. Diffraction in this sense is the bending of light waves that enter the chamber or room and to appear on the wall opposite of the aperture. This image can be produced with exceptional quality if accomplished in the right way. When viewing the camera obscura while it is taking place, one will notice that the image presented on the wall is inverted due to diffraction. Leonardo da Vinci is said to have developed this technique for drawing but was not credited for it. Later on people began to use it more to render drawings to be perspectively correct. Artists at the same time had a hard time with perspective, so the camera obscura helped advance their skills in drawing with becoming perspectively correct. This device is important to the history of photography b ecause it was one of the first forms of photography and cameras. It showed that, at the same time, advances could be made in photography, something with the means of time and knowledge. The discovery of the â€Å"new† technique brought about a need and desire of photography to this day, especially for Abelardo Morell. When deciding to create a camera obscura there are a few things one should consider before jumping into the mind-boggling technique. The first thing you need to consider is the room that you will be photographing in. This room needs to have at least one window and one entry way. The second factor to consider is the time of day you will be photographing in. The time of day where the light is the brightest is the best time to pull off this magnificent method. Also, look at what is outside of the anticipating room. Is the landscape dull or is it astounding? Depending on how amazing you want your photograph to come out depends on the photographer and the landscape that will be captured.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Influence of Celebrity Advertisements

Influence of Celebrity Advertisements India is one of the youngest countries in the world with 60% of its population less than 24 years of age. Maximum youngsters are using TV as a source of information. The study reflects that Young generation is highly influenced and convinced by celebrity advertisements. They feel celebrity advertisements increase credibility of TV advertisements. Physical appearance and personality of celebrity are also important factors to make TV advertisements more effective and convincing. The buying behavior of young generation is influenced by celebrities knowledge and experience. They prefer female celebrities for TV advertisements. According to them celebrity should be young/adult with appealing figure and celebritys Status, class, and lifestyle should match with the product which they are going to endorse. This study reflects few interesting result that Indian youth and adult majority do not give any importance to the caste, regional and religious background of celebrity for TV advertisement s. * Professor and Head, Accurate Institute of Management and Technology,Greater Noida, Gautam Buddha Nagar, (Uttar Pradesh India) ** Scientist, Center for Science Communication, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (Madhya Pradesh, India) *** Professor and Head, School of Social Science, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya,, Indore (Madhya Pradesh, India) Introduction In Indian family life cycle, young members of family play a vital role in buying behavior. The term young refers to persons who are no longer children and not yet adults. India is one of the youngest countries in the world with 60% of its population less then 24 years of age and is charted as the most prospective destination for retail investment in the A. T. Kearneys Global Retail Opportunity Report, 2007. The Indian young segment roughly estimates close to 250million (between the ages of fifteen and twenty-five) and can be broadly divided (socio-psychologically) into three categories: the Bharatiyas, the Indians the Inglodians (copyright Kaustav SG 2008). The Bharatiyas estimating 67% of the young population live in the rural areas with least influence of globalization and have high traditional values. They are least economically privileged, most family oriented Bollywood influenced generation. The Indians constitute 31.5% and have moderate global influence. They are well aware of the global trends but rooted to Indian family values, customs and ethos. The Inglodians are basically the creamy layers and marginal (1.5% or roughly three million) in number though they are strongly growing (70% growth rate). Inglodians are affluent and consume most of the trendy luxury items. They are internet savvy the believers of global-village (a place where there is no difference between east west, developing developed countries etc.), highly influenced by western music, food, fashion culture yet Indian at heart. According to The Financial Express Special, Tuesday, February 9, 2010 New Delhi young (age 13 to 35 years) population in India is 459 million in which literate young population is 333 million. More specifically age group (13 to 19) population is 36.7 million, age group (20 to 24) population is 22.1 million and age group (25 to 35) population is 44.3 million. Out of 333 million young populations, male young population is 186.5 and female young population is 146.2 million. However Television is most popular source of information with 78 % (91% urban, 70% rural) young viewer-ship. Newspaper comes second with 53 % (65.3 % urban, 45.9 % rural) readership, though it scores over television when it comes to being the primary source for news current affairs. Data also shows that maximum youngsers are using TV as a source of information. The importance of advertising has been widely accepted all over the world and has profound recognition in the global market. In India the role of advertising is getting more stress day by day and every businessman wants to invest willingly in advertising. The advertising business in India grew from Rs10 crores in 1955 to Rs 8000 crores in 2000* and in Nov 2005 it is estimated Rs.19900 crores and it is expected that it will reach Rs 55,800 crores by 2010 as estimated by Dainik Bhaskara. The fast growth of advertising industry in India is because of the phenomenonal development of such media as television, radio, and computer and in addition to the large number of new products introduced due to rapid industrialization new economic policy and economic development of the country. Billions of dollars are spent on celebrity endorsements, which show its importance for the advertising industry. A recent estimate notes that one quarter of all commercials screened in the USA include celebrities. In UK one in five (20%) marketing communication campaign features celebrities. (Journal of Advertising Research) In India, 20% of advertisements is endorsement by celebrities. Dainik Bhaskar estimates the total expenditure on advertising as Rs 19900 crores (Nov 2005) while on celebrity endorsement Rs 950 crores. Theory and practice prove that use of super star in advertising generates a lot of publicity and attention for public.( Ohanion 1991 ) At present the business companies prefer the use of celebrities as spokespersons in order to position and promote the sale and popularization of products or brands. The use of celebrities has become a favorable marketing strategy. Celebrities are people who enjoy public recognition by a large share of certain group of people, whereas attributes like attractiveness, extraordinary lifestyle or special status are just examples and specific common characteristics can not be observed. It can be said that within a corresponding special group, celebrities generally differ from their source name, and enjoy a high degree of public awareness. The main reason for using celebrities, as spokespersons is their high potential influence. The celebrities get higher degree of attention recall. They increase awareness of a company advertising, create positive feeling towards brands and areperceived by consumers as more entertaining (Soleman 2002). Using a celebrity in advertising is therefore likely to positively affect consumers brand attitude and purchase intention. It is estimated that approximately 20 percent of all advertisements use celebrity spokespersons payment to celebrities account for around 10 percent of all advertising dollars spent. Literature Review Researchers in the fields of marketing, communications and social psychology have tried to identify factors related to the endorser that are central to understanding and improving their effectiveness. The theoretical basis for assuming that an advertisements effectiveness increases relative to the trustworthiness, expertise, and attractiveness of the communicator stems from two research streams: source credibility (comprising of source trustworthiness and source expertise) and source attractiveness (also referred to collectively as the source models). From their study in 1953 Hovland et al. established the source credibility model and defined expertise as the extent to which a communicator is perceived to be a source of valid assertions and trustworthiness as the degree of confidence in the communicators intent to communicate the assertions he considers most valid. Source Attractiveness does not refer to physical attractiveness per se it is related to three more general concepts: similarity, familiarity, and liking. The model holds that the effectiveness of a message depends on the sources familiarity, likeability, similarity, and attractiveness to the respondent. Familiarity is considered knowledge of the source through exposure, whereas likeability is affection for the source as a result of the sources physical appearance and behavior; and similarity is the supposed resemblance between the source and the receiver of the message (McGuire, 1985). According to the source models, endorsers are effective when they are seen by consumers as trustworthy (Friedman Friedman, 1976; G. Miller Basehart, 1969), experts (Crano, 1970; Crisi Kassinove, 1973; Woodside Davenport, 1974), and attractive (Joseph, 1982; McGuire, 1985). Although there are a number of moderating influences (e.g. fit with product and audience; low vs. high purchase decision; prio r attitudes), in general, the more trustworthiness, expertise, and attractiveness the endorser has, the more effective they are at changing consumer attitude and opinion. (Brinol, Petty, Tormala, 2004; Gotlieb Sarel, 1991; Grewal, Gotlieb, Marmorstein, 1994; Harmon Coney, 1982; Hovland, Irving, Kelly, 1953; Hovland Weiss, 1951; Sternthal, Dholakia, Leavitt, 1978) Empirical evidence in support of source credibility is abundant. Source credibility is credited with improved consumer confidence (Brinol et al., 2004), reversing negative predispositions (Sternthal et al., 1978), increasing product purchase intentions (Harmon Coney, 1982), and altering consumers reactions to advertisements and brands (Goldsmith, Lafferty, Newell, 2000). Additionally, research has shown that highly credible sources induce more behavioral compliance than do less credible sources (Ohanian, 1990, p. 42); OBJECTIVES OF STUDY To analyze the influence of celebrity TV advertisements on young generation. To find out impact of buying behavior factors on young population HYPOTHESIS 1. H01: Young generation is not influenced by celebrity TV advertisements 2. H02: There is no impact of buying behavior factors on young generation 5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Survey was conducted in district Gautam Budh Nagar. The 300 sample size was selected in such a way that both the young and adult were represented proportionately. In most of the situations many respondents had refused and some respondents had not cooperated to fill the questionnaires. Hence 450 respondents were selected by non-probability convenience sampling method to fill thequestionnaire. Only 300 respondents have given appropriate and complete information on sent questionnaire. Rests of the questionnaires were dropped because of incomplete information. A five-point interval Likert scale from strongly agree (5) to strongly not agree (1) was used to measure the response to each statement (items). Z Test used to test mean difference between two samples Z Test: SE= Standard Error = Standard Deviation (Adult) Standard Deviation (YOUNG) = Mean of Adult = Mean of YOUNG = Number of Observations (Adult) = Number of Observations (YOUNG) Z= Z Test DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis shows that out of 300 respondents, there were 166 (55.33 %) young respondents and 134 (44.67 %) were adult respondents in this study age group of 12 year to 21 years considered as Young respondents and Age group of 22 year to 45 years considered as Adult respondents. (Table-1) More specifically data analysis shows that in male respondents, young were118 (39.33%) and adult were 80 (26.67%). Similarly in female respondents, young were 48 (16 %) and adult 54 (18 %) (Table-1.1) INFLUENCE OF CELEBRITIES ON RESPONDENTS (CONSUMERS) THROUGH T.V. ADVERTISEMENTS 6.1. INFLUENCE To measure the influence of celebrity through T.V. advertisements on respondents, eight questions were asked from respondents. (Figure-1) According to Table No.2 results shows that both young and adult respondents have similar opinion. They were in favor of the fact that Celebrity advertisements are more effective; create more attention and trust than non celebrity advertisements. However young generation feels that celebrities have more expertise than non-celebrities for T.V. advertising. They feel more convinced by celebrity advertisements. According to them, use of celebrities increases advertisements credibility. Physical appearance and personality of celebrity are also important factors to makes T.V. advertising more effective and convincing. 6.2. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS, WHICH INFLUENCE THE BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF YOUNG GENERATION Twenty-four specific attributes of celebrities (factors) have been analyzed under the major four factors expertise, trustworthiness, physical appearance and personality (Figure-2) 6.2.1. EXPERTISE Seven statements were asked to respondents to analyze specific expertise attributes of celebrities, which may influence the buying behavior of respondents Table No. 3 shows that buying behavior of young generation influenced, if celebrities are experienced and users of product. However, adult respondents feel that celebrities should have knowledge of the products which they are going to endorse by TV advertisements. According to both type of respondents (adult and young) celebrities should be educated and skilled, qualified and Justified for that product which they are going to promote. Result also reflects that technical knowledge about product/brand to celebrity is not required to convince purchase. 6.2.2. TRUSTWORTHINESS Specific attributes of trustworthiness of celebrities have been analyzed on the basis of five statements According to table no.3.1 Young and adult both respondents purchase their products on the trust, honesty, truthfulness and dependability of celebrities. However adult respondents feel celebrities should be sincere and Reliable also to influence their buying behavior. 6.2.3. PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS To analyze specific attributes of physical attractiveness of celebrites five questions were asked from respondents to measure the infuluence on buying behaviour of respondents Table 3.2 results shows that young generation feels that celebrities should be young/adult and they should have appealing figure (sexy and beautiful) they prefer female celebrities for TV advertisement. However, both (young and adult) respondents feel that celebrities should be smart (body constitution) to convince to purchaser. They also believe that Voice and gesture of celebrity is also important factors that affect on their purchase decisions. 6.2.4. PERSONALITY To measure the impact of specific personality attributes of celebrities, seven questions were asked from respondents that may influence their buying behavior. According to findings of Table 3.3 young generation feels that Status, class, and lifestyle of celebrity should match with product/brand and advertisement for effective and convincing advertisement. However adults believe that social cultural background of celebrities influences their buying behavior. Both young and adult respondents have similar thinking towards Image, Reputation and popularity (public figure) of celebrity which plays important role to influence buying behavior of respondents. Analysis also reflects few interesting results that Indian young and adult respondents do not believe in the caste, regional and religious background of celebrity CONCLUSION Young generation is highly influenced and convinced by celebrity advertisements According to them, celebrity advertisements increase credibility of TV advertisements. Physical appearance and personality of celebrity are also important factors to make TV advertisements more effective and convincing. The buying behavior of young generation is influenced by celebrities knowledge and experience about such products which they are going to promote by TV advertisements. They prefer female celebrities for TV advertisements, according to them celebrity should be young/adult with appealing figure (sexy and beautiful) and celebritys Status, class, and lifestyle should match the product which they are going to endorse. Young and adult population commonly feels that celebrity advertisement is more effective; creates more attention and trust than non celebrity advertisements. According to them celebrities must be educated, qualified justified with that product to which they are endorsing through TV advertisements. They dont feel that technical knowledge is required to celebrities to endorse the products. They feel motivated to purchase their products by the trust, honesty, truthfulness and dependability of celebrity. They believe that celebrities should be smart (body constitution) to convince purchaser, they also feel that Voice and gesture of celebrity are also important factors to have effect on their purchase decisions. They have similar thinking that Image, Reputation and popularity (public figure) of celebrity plays important role in influencing the buying behavior. However adult generation believes that social and cultural background of celebrity should match product and TV advertisement. They also feel that celebrities should be sincere and Reliable to influence their buying behavior. This study reflects few interesting results that Indian young and adult majority do not give any importance to the caste, regional and religious background of celebrity for TV advertisements.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Free Macbeth Essays: Importance of the Last Two Scenes :: GCSE Coursework Macbeth Essays

The Importance of the Last Two Scenes in Macbeth The last two scenes are a very important part of the play. They are the last two scenes in the play in which Macbeth is alive. They are also a very effective part of the play; the audience will have already realized that something will happen which will decide the ending of the play. This awareness that something is about to happen is made so by the commotion of the two great armies as they prepare to fight and by Macbeth's eagerness and confidence to win. These scenes remind the audience of Macbeth's true character. Early on in the play he was portrayed as a fierce and brave warrior, however, as the play developed the audience began to get the impression that Macbeth was not all that he had been made out to be. He was seen as a selfish man who got what he wanted by murdering his rivals. This was intentional on the part of the playwright as the entire play is focusing in on how a man as powerful as the king of Scotland can do whatever his "vaulting ambition" wants him to. These scenes re-iterate Macbeth's original character. All of the scenes leading up to these two have been advancing the plot in such a way that scenes seven and eight are able to take the audience completely by surprise. For example, the supernatural plays a large role in this play and the audience knows that it will have something to do with the destiny of Macbeth and the outcome of the story. It is this prediction that makes the audience remember what the witches said to Macbeth: "The power of man, for none of woman born shall harm Macbeth." These phrases baffle the audience, and so as the end of the play approaches they become interested to find out what they mean. Scene seven begins with a short soliloquy from Macbeth, he says "They have tied me to a stake, I cannot fly, but bear-like I must fight the course." This tells the audience that Macbeth doesn't want to fight, and he doesn't, but later it is revealed that he is very confident to win. The first man that Macbeth fights with is Young Siward. Macbeth soon kills him "for none of woman born shall harm Macbeth." Scene eight follows, with the fight between Macbeth and Macduff.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

My Philosophy of Education :: Teaching Teachers Educational Essays

My Philosophy of Education I always get asked why I am a chemistry major if I have no intention of working in industry. My sarcastic verbal answer is that I must not like having free time, or getting credit for four hour-long labs. The real reason is because I have a passion for education, especially in the sciences. Children are our future and as such need to be educated. I believe one of the key reasons why the United States is the great nation that it is today is because of the educational opportunities that we offer the masses. This way, we have a larger pool for our leaders of tomorrow to be pulled from. It is our job as teachers to educate these masses and even if they don’t become the leaders of tomorrow, they are going to fulfill important roles in society. We owe the American Dream to the younger generations; they deserve not only the opportunities that we had, but even more opportunities. I would like to see every child pursue the path of success and tap into their unlimited potential. While this is a wonderful dream, it is not realistic. Due to many factors such as, but most certainly not limited to learning disabilities, substance abuse, violence, incurable diseases, inadequate family involvement, not all students will come close to their actual potential. Above and beyond giving children an education in our field, we are to help them overcome these problems and to succeed in life. By giving a child an education, we are giving them a future. There are many ways in which we can overcome many of these problems. Learning disabilities are becoming less of a disadvantage these days due to in and out of class support and diverse teaching methods. By catering to multiple intelligences and helping students find their niches in school, we are helping them stay away from drugs and violence by giving an alternate venue to express themselves. Students are us ually better off if they have a family that is actively involved and supportive of their education. As educators we must plan programs for those students who are deficient in this area, we must also be supportive and supply the students with a conducive environment for education.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Kentucky Fried Chicken History Essay

The company operates with five long-term measures identified as essentials of corporate growth and progress .. 1 International Expansion ‘Yum! Brands number-one goal is to drive global expansion with its category- leading brands. In 2002, the company opened a record 1,051 new international estaurants and increased international system sales 9% prior to foreign currency conversion. ‘ 2. Multibrand Innovation & Expansion ‘Yum! Brands is the worldwide leader in multibranding, offering consumers more choice and convenience at one restaurant location from a combination of two of the company’s brands. The company and its franchisees today operate over 1,975 multibrand restaurants, generating over $2 billion in annual system sales. Approximately 350 new systemwide multibrand restaurants were opened in 2002. ‘3. Portfolio of Category-Leading U. S. Brands ‘U. S. ystemwide same-store sales increased approximately 4% while U. S. same-store sales at company restaurants increased approximately 2% in 2002. ‘4. Global Franchise Fees ‘Global franchise fees, a significant factor in annual profits and cash flow, grew 6% to $866 million. Global franchise net restaurant growth was 2% in 2002. ‘ 5. Strong Cash Generation and Returns ‘Yum! Brands generated over $1. 3 billion in cash from all sources in 2002, more than fully funding capital expenditure needs, allowing free cash flow for share repurchase, and some repayment of debt. Return on invested capital is 18%, in the estaurant industry’s top tier. ‘ Culture Big on diversity in the workplace Promotes differences in background, ethnic cultures, and values – oriented environment Focuses on teaching everybody something new Promotes unity in the workplace Team- Focuses on building relationships and creating diversity and commitment within the company and amongst employees and customers Organizational Structure and Design KFC is part of a divisional structure, which is Yum! Brands, Inc. – Long John Silver’s, A;W, Taco Bell, and Pizza Hut are the other divisions – Offers positions to change and growth – KFC works to bring recognition and money to Yum! Brands, Human Resource Management We won’t make you wing it’ is KFC’s motto when it comes to training employees. Training includes: 1) Workbooks 2) Quizzes 3) On-the-Job competency based training Employees are encouraged to work together as a team their people grow to their highest potential interesting and exciting for workers Social Responsibility KFC is committed to making sure KFC does their best to make the Job KFC has made it their responsibility to consumers that they will provide quality chicken in a fast, efficient way. They also say that their meat comes about ethically and through humane treatment. This has not always proved true in the past, since the PETA has become involved with their warehouses that ‘grow’ the chickens. KFC has made statements to the patrons of KFC, though, that the chickens will not be treated badly in the progression from birth to the processing plant. KFC sponsors a reward for senior citizens, those who live life to the fullest and are recognized in their community ‘ KFC also has the Colonel’s Kids program, a charity organization that helps kids become educated and grow up in a better world han that which they have known. It addresses the child care crisis and steps up to the plate to help out where possible. ‘ Scholarships and diversity programs are a part of KFC’s social responsibility as well Recently, the PETA group secretly recorded a worker at the Pilgrim’s Pride, one of the processing plants, beating a live chicken against the wall in order to kill it. As soon as KFC was notified of this treatment, they immediately submitted a written statement saying that the treatment was ‘appalling’ and took action immediately, placing an animal welfare expert at the plant to ensure he ethical, humane treatment of the chickens. The statement said that: â€Å"We do not tolerate animal abuse by any of our suppliers, under any circumstance. ‘ KFC also told the company Pilgrim’s Pride that, â€Å"unless they can definitively assure us there are absolutely no abuses taking place, we will not purchase from this Moorefield, West Virginia, facility. ‘ PETA says that more action should be taken, but KFC has done all it can to ensure that people are happy with the facilities and means by which their food comes about.

Kurt Vonnegut’s Cats Cradle Analysis

Ben Fisher Mr. Anderson AP Writing and Composition 1 14th November 2012 Cat's Cradle American Author Analysis by Ben Fisher Cat's Cradle by Kurt Vonnegut is a science fiction book that was published in 1963. The book is (falsely thought to be)centered around the narrator, John, and his quest to write a book about what was happeneing with the creators of the atomic bomb the day the first bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. His adventure follows his travels as he meets with researchers, the children of a fictional Dr. Felix Hoenikker, and ventures to an island nation to talk to the good doctors final son.Along this course, he explains a religion he does not yet have, as this is from a post-experience diary perspective, called Bokononism, and its practices. He gains knowledge of this religion and its creation on the island of San Lorenzo, which resolves in him becoming president. But this is a side plot of the book. The main plot, hidden in the background, is centered around a ficticious sub stance called Ice-Nine, with the power to freeze all the worlds oceans in the blink of an eye if it were to touch a single water source, an expression of mans' ability to destroy the things that surround him.Cat's Cradle is set in an unknown year more than 20 years after August 6th, 1945. At the beginning, John visits Ilium, New York to talk to Dr. Asa Breed at General Forge and Foundry, the place in which Felix Hoenikker â€Å"worked†, which leads to his discovery of several key locations in the area. The later half is focused on the fictional Carribean island of San Lorenzo, an island nation started by Earl McCabe, a marine deserter, and Bokonon, born Lionel Boyd Johnson, who created Bokononism.These settings leave a sense of a tight dichotomy between modern America and the Caribbean nation of San Lorenzo. Though the concept of the book within, about the bombing of Hiroshima, and a freeze frame of the events of that day, reveals a young nation holding infinite power in a va st expanse of nothingness. The concept of San Lorenzo as a country in location is central to the happenings of the book. To contrast this idea of self destruction is the concept of Bokononism, a religion outlawed on the island after being created by one of its founders.Christianity is the official religion, but both Protestantism and Catholicism are illegal, and every single citizen of the island celebrates Bokononism even with the threat of the â€Å"hy-u-o-ook-kuh†, representing how San Lorenzan natives pronounce the Hook, a giant fish hook that a Bokononist is threatened to be speared upon if they are caught practicing Bokononism. Though this concept is really an illusory ploy created by Bokonon and McCabe, and perpetrated by the island's leader, â€Å"Papa† Monzano, to give hope in pure foma, or harmless untruths, that form a religion that gives hope and reason instead of defining how you should live.You exist to serve the wampeter of you karass whilst avoiding gra nfalloons and trying to find kan-kans that leads the creation of more sinookas that lead to a procces of vin-dits. All the while you may be bothered by stuppas and pool-pah, but when you are busy, busy, busy, you will truly understand your situation, and in your zah-mah-ki-bo, you may lead yourself to think, â€Å"Now I will destroy the whole world†. All this while, you may connect to another, boko-maru will most likely lead to you finding your path. * *Translated: In short, the book is lies.Your life is based around serving the central theme of you group (wampeter of your karass) and avoiding intermingling into false groups (granfalloons), and finding items that help your cause (kan-kans) To create tendrils to intertwine others into your life (sinookas) causing shoves towards Bokononism (vin-dits). A fogbound child (a stuppa) or a shitstorm/the wrath of God (pool-pah) may try to mislead yourself, but eventually tou will think about the complicated and unpredictable machinery of life (busy, busy, busy) and will find your inevitable destiny (zah-mah-ki-bo) leading you to your task unknowingly.This may end in suicide (Now I will destroy the whole world) due to the duffle placed upon a stuppa (a fate of many placed on one who knows, nor can find, nothing). The idea of boko-maru is supposed to be a very sensual experience that connects two people deeply. Though at any time, your spirit is orbiting an object of great importance, your karass around a wampeter. The person who secondhandedly introduces us to these concepts is not our protagonist. It is our narrator, a minor character in his own aspects, but the only one that is left later, though he never truly matters.He is simply around to be an expositor of the actions of others, a minor characters sharing the traits of a protagonist. The true protagonist of the story, or which the story revolves around, is Felix Hoenikker, a fictitious addition to the Manhattan project team. He is portrayed as an odd man in capable of conventional thought or process, but able to think up and create brilliant objects in moments when presented with a problem. His mind otherwise wandered his whole life, and he was emotionless and apathetic towards anything but his work.His children, Newton, Franklin, and Anglea, play major rolls constructing the story for the narrator, exposing themselves as as weird as their father. Their mother, Emily, plays a minor roll in the story, but a major roll in a shift in the good doctors attitude that would barely be noticed by most, including his own children. Bokonon and Earl McCabe are presented as opposing forces, one being the founder and continual contributor of Bokononism, the other of a government willing to convict those practicing to keep the concept practical.This provides the whole concept of possibility for the ending of the book. One Julian Castle once owned the island and used it as a sugar plantation, and by all means is one of the most complex and thoughtful (see: evil/diabolical) characters in the book, running a humanitarian aid hospital in the jungle of San Lorenzo. He works alongside one Schlicter von Koenigswald, a former S. S. member that had worked in Auschwitz doing various unnamed evil tasks, now working at the Hospital of Hope and Mercy to atone for his sins.The main characters progress in that they gain a concept of both brotherhood and false family through their karass. By the end, the narrator has gone through rage, happiness, depression, excitement, and finally, he tells himself the truth. He becomes what he once feared, but does not fear what he becomes. The revelations that bring about this change are rather odd. At the beginning, John introduces that this is a book written about the events that brought about the end of the world.John is writing a book about the day of the dropping of the Little Boy on Hiroshima. This leads to a discussion with Dr. Asa Breed, the man who supervised Felix Hoenikker, the fictional forefath er of the atomic bomb. They discuss that the good doctor was very flittery minded, and worked on whatever he felt like. Once, they asked him if he could create something to turn mud to solid ground in seconds. He said it was impossible, and Dr. Breed believed it was never created. The truth is the good Doctor created the substance, named Ice-9, in small portions.John follows the trail to the son of Doctor Hoenikker, Newt, and his sister, Angela, a painting and a clarinetist, respectively. They all end up meeting on a flight to San Lorenzo, where John heads after learning Frank Hoenikker, the middle son of Doctor Hoenikker, had become the Major General of San Lorenzo. It is later revealed that this was achieved by using a sample of Ice-9 as a bargaining chip, trading it for the position after washing up on the shore after a shipwreck.The separate chunks, carried by Franklin, Newton, and Angela, were created when the good Doctor, whilst on vacation at his summer home, was playing arou nd with his original sample in his spare time. Whilst on the island, â€Å"Papa† Monzano becomes sick, and declares that Franklin will become the next president, and requests Bokononist burial rights. Franklin passes the buck on to John, asking him if he would take the position if he could marry Mona. He accepts, and plans to change the law so Bokononism may be practiced, but sees it has been outlawed such as to carry a flame of hope for all residents of the island.As he prepares to assume the position, â€Å"Papa† Monzano kills himself declaring that he â€Å"will destroy the whole world†, and freezing himself with his sample of Ice-9. Angela, Newton, John, and Franklin attempt to destroy any samples of Ice-9 and the corpse, but during a staged bombing run, one of the planes crash into the cliffside mansion and knock his body into the water, freezing the whole world solid. John and Mona takes refuge in a chamber built by â€Å"Papa† Monzano for the same reason, and they survive to see it in wreck, tornadoes reigning supreme, the sky a blanket of everlasting storms.Mona, upon finding most of the population frozen, tastes a small sample of the snow created by Ice-9, and dies instantly. John then happens upon the others who survived in the remains of the castle, and shortly thereafter meets Bokonon. The possible final words of the Books of Bokonon, driving the narrator subconsciously and consciously throughout the book, are well thought out, but only in the moment. â€Å"If I were a younger man, I would write a history of human tupidity; and I would climb to the top of Mount McCabe and lie down on my back with my history for a pillow; and I would take form the ground some of the blue-white poison that makes statues of men; and I would make a statue of myself, lying on my back, grinning horribly, and thumbing my nose at You Know Who. † Throughout the book, constant references are made to the book within the book about the creati on of the atomic bomb. Along these lines, Cats Cradle itself is an allegory about the destructive power of man when faced with an object of great potential that can be so easily mishandled.Ice-9 represents the arms race, and is a literalization of the phrase â€Å"Cold War†. Taking the context of the stringent political atmosphere between America and Cuba/Soviet Russia at the time, Vonnegut creates the theoretical isle of San Lorenzo for the bringers of doom, much as the Americans perceived Cuba could bring about the same end in an alternative fashion. Nuclear winter makes a strong connection, along with the toxicity of the snow that is brought about, along with the changes in weather and atmosphere. I opened my eyes—and all the sea was ice-nine. The moist green earth was a blue-white pearl. The sky darkened. Borasisi, the sun, became a sickly yellow ball, tiny and cruel. The sky was filled with worms. The worms were tornadoes† (P. 151). The true severity of the arms race is also parodied by the easy manner in which â€Å"Papa† Monzano brings about the end, with just a touch of the material to his tongue, similar to how with just the touch of a button over a faulty Early Detection System, the world could be brought to Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD).Kurt Vonnegut, as he has done in many of his pieces, inserted his own consciousness to portray John, allowing him to insert his own perspective on any scene in which he is included. Though John only represents parts of his personality, and is not wholly the same. Through a combination of conversation, observation, and presentation of the conceptual ideas of this parallel reality, the exploration of practical destruction. Relevant to this information is his personal experiences in the happenings of war and the propensity of our people to complete these actions.Today, this book is a paradoxical, if not accurate, mirror to the climate at the time. Cold and drastic, not an inch to budge or you'd get bombed to smithereens. In this way, Kurt Vonnegut challenged a major part of what was considered standard for a novel, and instead wrote what he felt would move correctly, and for that he is remembered. â€Å"In the beginning, God created the earth, and he looked upon it in his cosmic loneliness.And God said, â€Å"Let Us make living creatures out of mud, so the mud can see what We have done. † And God created every living creature that now moveth, and one was man. Mud as man alone could speak. God leaned close to mud as man sat, looked around, and spoke. â€Å"What is the purpose of all this? † he asked politely. â€Å"Everything must have a purpose? † asked God. â€Å"Certainly,† said man. â€Å"Then I leave it to you to think of one for all this,† said God. And He went away. † I thought this was trash. (Pg. 153)

Friday, August 16, 2019

Technology Implementation

And technology implementation then there would be a lot of leak in the system as well that result in a very severe or drastic problem. In this way it can be say that software programs that developed to resolve a problem needs attention in all these metrics to work upon and to get a better result. If there is a better program written by a programmer who is reliable and portable efficient and of strong functionality then fulfill the better requirement in this case. Whereas if we are talking about the wireless information systems things become more sensitive as we are dealing on real time and gather a lot of security risks. Thats why after applying and implementing rules and regulations and following the standards will get the better resultsafter implementation of these steps architecture to develop a software program is required. When these wireless systems developed then these should cope with the problem fairly on real time. If an architecture of software program is designed in such a way that it is safe for security flexibility and other issues as well. If technology is implemented selected in an improved way then an information system can work well. If there are leaks in the design and programming tactics and technologyimplementation then there would be a lot of leak in the system as well that result in a very severe or drastic problem. In this way it can be say that software programs that developed to resolve a problem needs attention in all these metrics to work upon and to get a better result. If there is a better program written by a programmer who is reliable and portable efficient and of strong functionality then fulfill the better requirement in this case. Whereas if we are talking about the wireless information systems things become more sensitive as we are dealing on real time and gather a lot of security risks. Thats why after applying and implementing rules and regulations and following the standards will get the

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Baseball Magic Essay

George Gmelch’s piece Baseball magic is a classic example of a piece that makes you rethink what you thought you knew. I would have never linked a relationship between religion and the practices that baseball teams or individuals have on a day to day basis. It has now become evidently clear that these practices, whether it be eating in a particular spot every day, or going to church faithfully every Sunday, have tremendous effects on our everyday lives. Gmelch who presents his case with American baseball players, shows the various taboos and fetishes that these players have and they believe that these rituals are linked to their winning or losing a game. The most alarming factor is that these professional players forget or rather ignore the fact that they possess true abilities and skill, which is how they got onto the team in the first place. They idolize prized possessions that they believe give them luck and the lack of these rituals or failure of these rituals does not sto p them, but merely makes them create new ones to fit their needs. It is as if their skills got them into the sport, but their rituals keep them playing. In a way these players are not too far from me in my everyday life. If I studied in a particular way and earned good grades, it is more likely that I will continue this same way of studying until it fails and then I would create another one to fit my needs. Rituals seem to be a common trend with the human species, it is how we make sense of the unknown. Throughout Gmelch’s ethnography the most common trend that these players had was that they were trying to have control over what they deemed uncontrollable. These rituals gave them stability and hope that they would have some effects over reality and even if their rituals were not directly related with winning or losing the game, the fact that they might be able to control the outcome of the game was still thrilling. Overall, we all part take in rituals on a daily basis, whether it be brushing our top teeth before the bottom, touching the wall before you leave your room, or never  leaving the house without checking the stove. All these things help us cope with the day to day uncertainties of life. It is not the power of the rituals that make us satisfied, but the power we give to the rituals that make us feel like we are in control and are masters of uncertainty.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

The Inenvention of the Wheel

The invention of the wheel is the single most important invention in the world. The wheel did not only shape our world in transportation but it helped evolve many inventions. The wheel is estimated to have been invented in 3500 B. C. (Reynolds). There have been many changes to the wheel that have made it a more advanced invention and changed into newer inventions. The wheel has shaped our world geographically, economically, and culturally. The evolution of transportation became capable with the invention of the wheel.Without the wheel the wagon would never had been invented (Reynolds). The invention of the wagon was the first of many inventions that came from the wheel that helped the transportation of goods for trade (Reynolds). The steam engine train was also another break through of technology from the wheel. The steam engine train made it possible to transport items from a greater distance, faster delivery, and it also made transporting goods for trade less expensive which led to a greater profit for the merchants (â€Å"Transportation Revolution†).With the capability of transporting goods over land quicker the economics of the world turned for the better. With the invention of vehicles people were beginning to be able to see the more of the world. The wheel helped many people see the amazing geography of their surroundings. In 1845 most vehicles had wooden and steel tires (Colvin). Robert Thomas invented the pneumatic tire which gave people and smoother and more enjoyable ride to see the places they wanted to visit (Colvin).The first type of wheel that was being used on vehicles was made of peer rubber, but later John Dunlop improved the solid rubber wheel into an air filled rubber wheel (Colvin). Even in China during 2000 BC wheels were put on chariots to carry kings and emperors around to see their kingdom (â€Å"Wheel†). Still today vehicles are the main source of getting around quickly. Many people travel the country in RVs to see at that is to see. Even the airplane would not be able to land without a wheel at the bottom.Without the invention for the wheel there would be no other way of getting around on land to see the sites that the world has in store for us. There are many inventions that use the same basic idea as the wheel. The pottery wheel never would have been invented if the wheel was never developed. The pottery wheel is an invention that has simply changed a few things about the wheel to make it work. The potter’s wheel is estimated to have been invented in 3000 BC and is a very important feature to the culture of nearly every country (Bryant).Pottery is one of the only ways we can tell how the ancient towns had worked. Many archeologists work for weeks if not months to try to dig up ancient pottery so that we can better understand the ancient culture. Pottery is not the only thing that the wheel affected. The wheel also helped the sport of racing become a big part of our culture. On April 23, 191 1 the world first of the world’s fastest mile was completed in 25 seconds (Carter). This was the start of many races in the US. Today without the ever being invented the sport of NASCAR never would have been thought up.Many people in the US enjoy watching this port and have made it a huge part of their life. The wheel is not only a great invention put it has shaped our would in so many different ways. The wheel has not only been changed many times but it has evolved into the greatest invention of man kind. The wheel has helped the world economically, geographically, and culturally for the better. This is why the wheel is considered to by the best invention in the world.Works Cited Bryant, Victor. â€Å"The Origins of the Pottery Wheel. † Ceramics Today. 26 Jan. 1996. Web. 14 Nov. 2009. . Carter, C. F. , and Isaac Marcosson. â€Å"Man’s Fastest Mile: The Automobile Age. † A. D. 1911. The Great Events by Famous Historians, Vol 21. Harrogate, TN: The Nationa l Alunmi, 1926. World Book Advanced. Web. 22 Nov. 2009. Colvin, Howard A. â€Å"Tire. † World Book Advanced. World Book, 2009. Web. 28 Oct. 2009. Reynolds, Terry S. â€Å"Invention. † World Book Advanced. World Book, 2009. Web. 28 Oct. 2009. â€Å"Transportation Revolution. † World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 28 Oct. 2009. . â€Å"Wheel. † The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. Encyclopedia. com. 15 Nov. 2009 .

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Demand and Supply Analysis Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Demand and Supply Analysis - Term Paper Example Economists assume all factors are held constant (ie do not change) except one – the price of the product itself. A change in a factor being held constant invalidates the ceteris paribus assumption. (Riley, 2006) There is an income effect when the price of a good falls because the consumer can maintain current consumption for less expenditure.   Provided that the good is normal, some of the resulting increase in real income is used by consumers to buy more of this product.  (Riley, 2006) There is also a substitution effect when the price of a good falls because the product is now relatively cheaper than an alternative item and so some consumers switch their spending from the good in competitive demand to this product. (Riley, 2006) Firstly, there is a profit motive. Whether the increases in market prices (for example, after a surge in demand), it is more advantageous for companies to increase production. Signs of higher prices for companies that can increase profits by market demand. Production and cost: With increasing production, increasing production costs of a company, so a higher price is necessary to justify the additional production and cover the additional costs of production. New competitors enter the market: rising prices create an incentive for other companies to enter the market leading to increased supply. The price where the demand and supply meet is known as equilibrium price or market price. This is the point where the buyers and sellers come together at a common point. In a market a good will always be traded at its market price as this maintains equilibrium between the supply and the demand. (Sloman, 2006) The outward shift in the demand curve causes a movement (expansion) along the supply curve and a rise in the equilibrium price and quantity.   Firms in the market will sell more at a higher price and therefore receive more in total revenue. Similarly a backward/inward shift creates the opposite