Wednesday, July 31, 2019
1.1 Introduction The aim of every business is to achieve operational excellence and efficiency. The effectiveness of business processes today has been influenced by technology. However, as computing technology becomes increasingly vital to conducting business and communicating with associates, new and more complex issues must be resolved. Among them is the need to ensure that the benefits derived from using computers are not reduced due to accompanying information management inefficiencies or to the creation of new business risks. A hotel is a building where travelers can pay for lodging, meals and other activities. Hotel Management involves combination of various skills like management, marketing, human resource development, and financial management, inter personal skills, dexterity, etc. Hotels are a major employment generator in tourism industry. Hotel management can be a very lucrative field, both in terms of annual revenues Furthermore, hotels are big attractions to businesses and associations l ooking to hold events. Booking an event means additional revenue for the use of a conference or banquet room, in addition to overnight guests who may use laundry and other concierge services. Work in the area of Hotel Management involves ensuring that all operations, including accommodation, food and drink and other hotel services run smoothly. Hotel management system goes a long way to assist hotels in achieving its aims. Hotel management system as an automated system will enable hotels provide all round services to their various customers or stakeholders through digital or electronic means. The system will assist management in its day-to-day business activities, make decisions. 1.2 Subject and Field of Study The field of study is computer studies and in relation to the subject area being Information Management system and Web Application Development with highlights on Database management, Web and Internet Technology. This project is a web application development project prior to my area of study, the project is designed specifically for hotel businesses that has seen the need of transforming business activities from the manual process to digital process and also businesses that needs safe and proper customer data management in electronic form using the internet. 1.3 Study Objectives The study objectives are categorized into two: 1.3.1 Global Objective: The Global objective of this project is to contribute to the general body of knowledge and research work in the area of developing a hotel management system that will automate the whole management processes of the organization (hotels). 1.3.2 Specific Objectives: The following are the targeted objectives to be accomplished in order to achieve the general objective above. To be able to create mutual communication between customer and business (hotel). To provide a platform for online booking and reservation by customerÃ¢â¬â¢s rooms. To provide easy access to customers in viewing and making selection of hotel rooms. To be able to manage fast access to guest(customers) information and easy update of records. To be able to provide security measures to access the hotels information lowering data security threats. To be able to provide better data management facilities To able to enable backups of respective users to be made and accessed when it is needed. 1.4 Problem Statement Intended to explore the impact of the design of Hotel Management System is expected to overcome the general problems in handling issues relating to hotel business activities, managerial activities, difficulties in providing stock control of equipmentÃ¢â¬â¢s used in the hotel, difficulties on monitoring and tracking customers details and requirements on which the tasks are performed, the time consuming aspects of various customers moving all the way to the preferred hotel to make reservation and bookings as well as viewing at the hotel rooms available. However providing notifications to respective customers about their reservation status is also time wasting. Also management of these hotels finds it difficult manually keeping records of their various employees, clients and other vital hotel related information. Difficulties in making references to old business transactions, dataÃ¢â¬â¢s and other negotiations and issues concerning security of data andÃ recovery manners is also considered. It is designed to replace old method of recording information by using pen and paper. 1.5 Research Methodology The proposed research methodology for this project is the Ã¢â¬Å"Waterfall ModelÃ¢â¬ . The waterfall model takes fundamental process activities and it is a sequential design process, often used in software development processes, in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases of separate process phases such requirement specification, software design implementation, testing and maintenance. To ensure that our project is in par with our client needs, we used the waterfall model approach in developing the systems. The first process of the model is data gathering. Here we gather information about basic hotel management system functionalities. Joint Application Development (JAD) will be used as fact- findings techniques that will be used to gather the requirements analysis if the Hotel Management System should be implemented in any hotel. After the first phase of data gathering we proceeded in interviewing our clients. We asked about what their expectations were in a hotel management system. Some clients already had a hotel management system. In this case we asked them about what improvements they would have wanted to add in the system such as implementing an attribute for passport information. After gathering all of the information from our clients we proceeded with the next step which is analyzing of data and problem solving. In here we began conceptualizing the components our system needed such as inputting name and creating a log in log out system. We also thought about what elements from our initial concept did not require. After conceptualizing all of the elements we need in creating our system we proceed to the next step which is implementing requirements. In here we decide what applications we need in developing the system. Here we decided to use VB.Net and MySQL as our primary programming languages. Now that we have our tools we proceed to the next step which is system and software design. In here we take our concept design and upgrade that design by implementing our tools in the design. This means we have to understand the requirements of the end user and also have an idea of how the end product should look like. System design also helps us specify the hardware andÃ system requirements to create the overall system architecture. System design is the (stepping stone towards) our next task which is GUI design. GUI design is the process of designing user interface of the entire system. This means that we start creating actual look of the program for our system. After creating the design we proceed to next step which is system coding. This is where the command lines are assigned to a GUI so that they would have their proper functions. An example would be initiating the connection query in order to connect to the database. After adding all of the required components we proceed to the final step which is system testing and debugging. Here both individual components and the integrated whole are methodically verified to ensure that they are error-free and fully meet the requirements. 1.6 Background and Justification of the Study The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which a hotel management system will be used in the organization to manage hotel business processes. A background study shows that the hotelÃ¢â¬â¢s daily operation is managed by the Administrative Department. The process starts from customers coming to the hotel to make reservations and enquiries, through the hotel receptionist. The customer booking details will be recorded in a manual form and filed. After making enquiries and finally a reservation is made, the reservation form would be forwarded to the cashier for payment to be made, all involving paper work. Since it involves paper work lots of time is consumed and booking & reservation takes a lot of time. Furthermore, when a customer wants to check out, files will have to be searched and retrieved so that the final operations of checking out a customer will be performed. Some of the service personnel who have studied the issues concerning the manual business operation issued by customers, has contended that the manual operation reduces the operational productivity of the hotel. Because there have been cases records have been mishandled due to human error, some dataÃ¢â¬â¢s cannot be found etc. HMS helps in managing reservations, bookings, guests and agents. The user can search for the vacant rooms in the hotel and book for it by not necessarily coming to theÃ physical location of the hotel. An administrator can view the booking details, transactions and coordinate the activity with the agents. He can track the entire site activity. Reservations can also be made through a phone call or an email. 1.7 Expected Outcome of the Project At the end of this project, the following becomes the outcome: There will be a created mutual communication between customer and management. Customers will be enabled make online booking and reservation by searching for rooms. There will be enabled effective storage of customersÃ¢â¬â¢ data Administrators will be able to manage fast access to guest files and updates of records will be done effectively and efficiently. Administrators will be provided with better data management facilities. There will be enabled security measures when trying to access the hotels information lowering data security threats. There will be enabled frequent backups of respective user details and access when needed. 1.8 Presentation of Thesis Chapter 1: General introduction is focused on the research which is the Project Proposal. Chapter 2: Literature Review which focuses on history and the outlook of the existing systems. Chapter 3: Methodology. In this chapter, the proposed system is analyzed into details and its importance discussed expansively where context level diagrams, dataflow diagrams, flowcharts will be used to explain the proposed system further. Chapter 4: System Analysis and Design; the study carries on with the design of the system. This chapter will encompass database modeling, class modeling, use case modeling and the relationship diagram of the proposed system. Chapter 5: Testing and Implementation; Implementation of the computer software goes on after the design. The system will be tested and reviewed to reveal errors. In this chapter also the documentation of the completed system. It also lays emphasis on both the users of the system and the system itself. Under the user documentation, the manual for both the user and the expert who will administer the system will be known. Finally conclusion and recommendation will be made as well as observations are identified and the necessary improvement which could be added to the system is made.
Although there are many differences that set art and science apart, they share one undeniable commonality. This bond that is present between what is otherwise considered as polar opposites is mathematics. As shown in Professor VesnaÃ¢â¬â¢s lecture, mathematics is imperative to the development of art. Through math, artists have come to understand perspective, proportion, and geometrics. In terms of science, mathematics is the foundation which every theory stands upon. Nature, humans, and the digital world would have been impossible to comprehend without numbers to bridge the gap between the unknown and the understood. Truly, mathematics is ubiquitous and continues to prove its importance to this day. A novel amalgamation that consists of mathematics, art, and science is music. Milkman, an artist of the mash-up genre, is a musician that samples different songs and digitally combines them to form a brand new track. In a way, his work is described as an example of cross synthesis or convultion which according to Burk is some aspect of one sound superimposed on another. To harmoniously combine two different songs, one must fully understand every possible correlation in terms of rhythm, melody, and lyrics. And with mathematics and science making the technology available, the art of mashing up songs has become readily accessible and requires only creativity to create the next hit single. Mathematics has almost an infinite range of applications in society today. For example, Robert Lang presents mathematics as part of the core that drives origami, the art of folding paper. Lang shows that complexity is irrelevant; with mathematics to dictate origami, anything can be shaped. Because of its practicality of compacting large things, origami is used in various sectors of science which include telescope lens packing and heart stents. Another example of mathÃ¢â¬â¢s prevalence is Theo JansenÃ¢â¬â¢s presentation on his kinetic sculptures. His biological art, able to move independently, essentially redefines the wheel. Not only is it artistic but also it is a masterpiece of engineering; just a simple push can propel a massively heavy structure across difficult terrain. It is evident that math not only facilitates the evolution of artistic creations but also helps apply them as potential solutions to problems of today.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
What determines whether or not a resource is scarce? Why is the concept of scarcity important to the definition of economics? The determination of whether a resource is scarce is its supply in relation to demand such as land, labor capital and human capital. If there is not sufficient amount of resource to satisfy the demands, then resources are set to be scarce. On the other hand if supply exceeds it demand, then the resource is not scare not only that if the supply of a goods or service is low, the market price will rise, providing there is sufficient demand from consumers. Goods and services that are in plentiful supply will have a lover market value because supply can easily meet the demand from consumer. However there is excess supply in a market, then we can expect to see price fall. The concept of scarcity is because in order to differentiate good in relation to the market, because of the scarcity of resources we need an economic system to determine where and who gets the resources. In capitalism it is the free market system that determines this. In socialism the government owns the resources and determines who gets them. . In the coordinate system of graphs, there are two main relationships between two variables. With the use of numerical examples, describe these two relationships. The two variables is positive means when two variables changes in the same direction and negative means when two variables changes in opposite directions, the relationship is when one variable rises the other variable falls. Positive relations is to say the I need to ex ercise 5 hrs a week to loss 2lbs so the next week I will have to work 10 hrs a week to loss 4lbs and 15 hrs to loss 6lbs so on. Negative is buy 1 CD for $5 and when you by three it is 10 so you will pay $3. 33 for one CD on so on . 3. Why is choice important in economics? What are the costs of choice? Choice is important in economics because of is the scarcity of goods in the marketplace. Scarcity means that goods are limited in the marketplace, and consumers must choose wisely which items they will purchase to meet their needs or wants. Consumers will place an internal value on goods they purchase partly based on the available amount of the good. Scarcer goods will force consumers to purchase these items first, making the economic choice easier for them. Cost choice is the value given up when choosing to purchase one item over another. The item not purchased represents an opportunity cost, the second-best item available, that the consumer lost purchasing a different item. For example you have to buy $100 worth of groceries but you only have 75, so you decide to forgo and buy the necessary basic food item that is needed like bread, milk, water, etc. The Role of Choice in Economics | How. comÃ http://www. ehow. com/about_5398568_role-choice-economics. html#ixzz1jBKaEUeF
Monday, July 29, 2019
The Silk Road - Essay Example And it was during 200 BC that Han rulers took control of Tarim region. The Silk Road was subsequently opened under China's control and the route to the Western part of the world started working. Chinese traders used Silk Road for the trade, which resulted in establishing of the Silk Road. Subsequently other countries also started using the road for carrying out their trade related activities thus strengthening the mutual relationship. In fact the 'silk road' is not a road as such, but a long stretch of trade route taken by the trading community. The trail spread mainly across Central Asia, resulted in prosperity not only along the route but in nearby regions as well, as branches from the main route emerged out of the Silk Road towards newer destinations in the interiors of the region. During those early days, the Roman, Parthian, Kushan, and Chinese worked towards providing stability to the Silk Road. Different countries had on offer different types of merchandise for China while Chinese started off with silk and then added more items on the trade. For example India traded with China in gems & jewelry, semiprecious stones, and glass which are the forte of India for many centuries. Buddhism also spread to from India to China through the silk route. The famous Chinese philosopher Fa-hsien, was one of first known Chinese travelers who took Silk Road for traveling towards India around 300 AD. Marco Polo, the famous traveler took 24 years while traveling through Asia. He also chose the Silk Road for his adventurous journey. His travels ignited the urge for industrialization in the Asian subcontinent. Today we can very well boast of the ICT era led technological boom in the industrial world, but historians credit Marco Polo's travelogue for bringing about the technological changes. In fact silk route led industrialization in this part of the world proved to be a turning point for the technological advancements. Marco Polo with his entourage did lot of purchasing from one region and sold it in another region along the silk route, which strengthened the trade practices along the Silk Road. The products sold by him were appreciated by the people, because till then people did not have much idea about the products being made by neighboring countries and regions. Though Osterhammel and Petersson identify the period from 1750 to 1880 as an era which gave rise to the phenomenon of free trade development and as an important step towards globalisation but Marco Polo's trade along the silk route, during the first half of 14th century could very well be termed as the beginning of globalisatio n. Trade along the Silk Road prospered during the times when China was ruled by a succession of non-Chinese dynasties belonging to different ethnic groups, as these groups depended to a great extent on outsiders for trade. Trade activities along the Silk Road suffered a decline owing to change in political equations in China and neighboring India. When power passed on to the Song dynasty, it proved to be weak in retaining control over strategically important central and northern part of China, which resulted in loss of control over Central Asian trade, thus diminishing the role of Silk Road. Subsequently Chinese rulers started paying more attention towards the sea route for carrying out trade. Subsequently when Mongols came to power during the late thirteenth and early fourteenth century, the Silk Road was once again revived for trade.
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Evolution American Government, Bill of Rights - Essay Example Though the articles anticipated a perpetual confederation, it gave the Congress very little powers that would help it fund it as well as enforce its resolutions. America had neither a president nor a national court. The articles helped in solving some western issues, since lands owned by different states were given up to be under the government.2 The confederation was regaining its prosperity when the British called off its blockade in 1783. However, there still a lot of problems since most states were still heavily indebted, and there were also a lot of political unrest in a number of states. The Congress, however, was hardly able to redeem the debts which had come as a result of the war. It also had too little power to enforce cooperation among the states, thereby slowing down economic development. In fact, the state governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s stability was shaken by the 1786-87 ShayÃ¢â¬â¢s Rebellion that occurred in western Massachusetts.3 The nation was in total mess, especially finan cially, and it seriously needed a body that could control its navigation laws. However, each state acted as a lone ranger when dealing with the British government. In addition, the Congress was still unable to control manufacturing and shipping, and state legislatures had little or no interest to protect private contracts, by 1787. When he was WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s executive aide, Alexander Hamilton saw the need for a stronger government, especially if foreign intervention was something to be avoided. This is just one of the indications that the articles were facing an inevitable revision. The need for a quick remedy saw Hamilton calling a convention, with like-minded people, in Philadelphia in 1786.4 The Articles contained a lot of problems. This central government was simply unstable: It could not control its taxes, since every state was still sovereign and independent. This led to its primary problem,
Saturday, July 27, 2019
David Ricardo - Essay Example Ricardo contributed many important theories in the field of economics. Almost two hundred years back he presented the idea of comparative advantage (Salvatore, 1995, p.2). This contribution gained popularity after his death and now is one of the most popular concepts amongst developed world to grow their economies. Unfortunately, these implementations are resulting in many negative outcomes for poor nations or poor all around the globe. How the ideas of David Ricardo has affected our nations. The classic defense to free trade was already established by Ricardo; now free trade is the main debate amongst all developing nations, especially poor countries, which suffer the most. Almost 23 years after his death, RicardoÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of free trade was picked as a public policy by Britain (Formaini 14). Free trade and comparative advantage no doubt was a great work by Ricardo; however, many poor countries suffered due to his theory. Rising prices of health and other commodities are the gro wing concern of all nations, but the idea of free trade and other trade agreements are positive for developed countries and multinational companies. For example, If U.S.
Friday, July 26, 2019
Protien refording - Essay Example During initial production and isolation of proteins, many factors such as overproduction, solvent interactions, mechanical interference, or others may result in the denaturation of proteins. Understanding protein folding involves understanding both the energy landscape of the protein system, and refolding techniques have been significantly improve as time-resolved techniques, including neutron scattering, have been developed and perfected by researchers around the globe. The techniques involve observation of protein dynamics in order to assess the critical point of refolding, information which can lead to the development of refolding solutions (Bu et al. 2001). Neutron scattering and similar inventive techniques, such as stopped-flow florescence. In order to scale up for commercial use, protein refolding techniques must be scale invariant, compatible for a large range of proteins, simple to automated, and overall economical. Methods that rely on denaturant dilution and column-based methodology generally will meet these criteria (Middelberg 2002). The technology of refolding has grown exponentially in the past decade, and new methods must be carefully designed to facilitate the automated and rapid determination of the conditions that must be met for refolding in order to be commercially viable. It, however, remains to be seen if researchers can translate new technologiesÃ¢â¬âand possibly even the discovery of a new protein stateÃ¢â¬âinto technology that will improve efficiency in bimolecular research industries. Before use, proteins are generally solubilised before use in high concentrations of quanidinium chloride (GdmCl) and urea (De Bernardez 1998 and Schwarz et al. 1998). Either of these two solvents may cause certain proteins to denature, and refolding involves diluting to a low concentration zone.
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Business Communication - Essay Example First, Marge did not plan well for JerryÃ¢â¬â¢s evaluation. Jerry is full of excitement about his evaluation, has thus prepared well, and planned his time well in a way that he arrives at the conference room five minutes earlier. As a good leader, Marge needed to do likewise and appear on time for JerryÃ¢â¬â¢s evaluation, which would give both of them a chance to converse and come to an agreement before eleven oÃ¢â¬â¢clock. Marge is using her lagging behind schedule, her hectic morning, and a meeting ahead with an important client as an excuse to sit and evaluate Jerry in a proper manner. Her lack of planning brings about the miscommunication between her and jerry. Jerry even quotes her as Ã¢â¬Å"late againÃ¢â¬ to show that it is a habit. A second barrier to communication between Jerry and Marge is their conflicting goals. As a supervisor to Jerry, Marge retorts that if he rates Jerry anything beyond average, he may relax. She appreciates that Jerry is working hard, but she does not communicate this to him. Instead, she decides to give him this rating to make Jerry work harder and improve on his work. On the other hand, Jerry expectations are high and according to him, an above average or excellent is his rating. He needs an explanation as to why Marge rates her as average and refuses to sign the evaluation documents. Marge cannot explain her aim in rating Jerry in the average column and thus they fail to understand one another. According to slide share website, Ã¢â¬Å"effective communication takes place when other can see situations as we do, think about the situation as we do, and understand the message as we doÃ¢â¬ (Slide share web). Failure to this, wrong assumptions fill up the intended message hindering comm unication. Thirdly, another barrier to communication is ones state of mind at the time of receiving and sending the message. This is because encoding and
Smart phones - Research Paper Example This link provides details about the law suits and the overall situation that is going on between Apple Inc, and other major players namely Nokia first, and now Samsung secondly. It gives an alarming note to Apple that the time and energy consumed in law suits is having a negative impact on the overall performance and standing of the company thereby it needs to get its act right in time. Assessment: this book provides an insight into the visionary man Steve jobs and his efforts how he changed the overall dynamics of operating systems and mobile interfaces in particular. He is the pioneer behind the newly introduced version of mobile phones in form of touch screens that were introduced in early part of 21st century. 6- Koetsier, John. http://venturebeat.com/2013/04/01/android-up-13-ios-down-7-blackberry-down-81-and-windows-phone-up-a-massive-52/. 1 April 2013. 8 May 2013 . Assessment: This article again provides a descriptive assessment of the findings from market standings and the current situation of the mobile phones. It provides the points gained in terms of popularity and the points lost in terms of market share by Samsung and Apple respectively. Assessment: This book takes into account the design, the relevant considerations in lieu of design, the methods incorporated, the tools that are used to facilitate the users of smart phones and other practices that are in common usage for purpose of communication establishment. Assessment: The study of this source is of high importance since it allows clear understanding of the concepts of Android Operating systems, the open source applications, the O.H.A, and the users who contribute towards making Android O.S more effective. The book provides a holistic over view of the entire set of operations that are in
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Project Mystory - Research Paper Example Generation X experienced poor jobs, slow economic growth and the recession, but they worked hard trying to acquire better living standards (Wartenberg). They got referred to as echo boomers due to their birth in the 80Ã¢â¬â¢s when there were high birth rates. Bathes shows the basic perspectives as well as the core values of the Generation X during the 90Ã¢â¬â¢s. Barthes focuses on the social occurrences and events that shaped the feelings and views of generation X when growing up in the 90Ã¢â¬â¢s. In the templates, Barthes shows the sociological occurrences and events that happen when one is changing to a sexual adult. He also explores how the transition influenced the sexual behavior, gender roles and the general attitude towards life. He shows the sociological events that happen when the youngsters in Generation X reached economic adulthood. The main character sits in a cafe waiting for his lover, and he gets carried away by thoughts wondering what would happen if the relatio nship failed. In the movie Ã¢â¬ËSinglesÃ¢â¬â¢, which was a 1992 Romantic film, it shows the life of young people of Generation X during the 90Ã¢â¬â¢s (Crowe). The movie centers on the love life of young people and how the hard social, political and economic conditions affected them. From this, the audience sees people growing up in the 90Ã¢â¬â¢s were keen to get into good relationships, which turned out not as easy as they thought. The movie and Barthes templates depict the Generation Xers as cautious lovers who desired stable marriages for themselves. They were cautious because their parents experienced a lot of divorce and they did not want to follow their footsteps (Crowe). In Ã¢â¬ËA Lovers DiscourseÃ¢â¬â¢ by Bathes, the Generation X gets viewed as desperate and eager for love. They get depicted as people expecting too much from their love relationships. In a scene from Ã¢â¬ËSinglesÃ¢â¬â¢, it depicts a male character sitting in a cafe and waiting for his lover to arrive. In the process, he falls into deep thoughts and starts thinking what would happen if the person he was waiting for failed to arrive. For moments, he recognized his love for what it was and thought of his life without her presence. This depicts generation X as people expecting so much from their lovers, yet they offered so little in return. The generation X faced a lot of challenges in love while growing up in the 90Ã¢â¬â¢s (Wartenberg). Most of them were looking forward to starting a family when they are thirty years old. Those who were in their late twenties and did not have lovers appeared desperate as time does not bide. They reduced the rate of divorce compared to their parents as they married later in life as most of them focused on career and education first. From the templates, it is evident that People from Generation X ended up following their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ footsteps unintentionally. Some of them because of getting raised by single mothers they opted for the sam e for fear of break ups. When growing up in the 90Ã¢â¬â¢s most of them got neglected or ignored because they happened to be offspringÃ¢â¬â¢s of absent or divorced parents. Many of the Generation X growing up in the 90Ã¢â¬â¢s desired a need to make a total commitment to their own children. This was because most of them had fallen victim of neglect. They wanted to be better than their parents and avoid making the same mistakes they made. When it comes to culture, the Generation X populace had no specific culture.
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Opinion on Diop - Essay Example He was obsessed by the same self serving misinformation held by racist white scholars implying that Africans had no significant civilization and strongly opposed their notion. He argued that the civilization was started by the Egyptians who were black and not by foreigners who trekked into Egypt as suggested by the white scholars. He proposed that Africans could not be categorized into one group that existed in the south of the Sahara. This was in opposition to the claim by white scholars that the inhabitants of Egypt in North Africa were white. He argued that rather, Africans had a wide variation in skin color, hair type and facial shape just as happens among other human races. I believe Diop was as racist as the white scholars. His perception was that the scholars conveniently selected white pharaohs and ignored the original black ones to show Egypt as a white civilization. Diop did researches determined to prove that ancient Egyptians bore similar physical traits as present day black Africans. He went further to claim that, linguistically, ancient Egyptian was related to his contemporary Wolof language of West Africa. In conclusion, I believe most of DiopÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts and work were aimed at wrestling civilization claims from the Western world. He was filled with an inferiority complex and tried to overcome it by attempting to link his Wolof ethnicity with the Egyptians. I also believe that is the reason he insisted on placing the human civilization credit upon the Egyptians, whom he claimed to be black.
Monday, July 22, 2019
Ethics of Designer Babies Essay I believe that it is unacceptable to reproduce genetically designed babies, unless it is to prevent disease or disability. Genetically designing babies can be used in many different ways. You can choose their hair and eye color, their IQ, and their special talents. People are beginning to predispose their children to be whatever they think they should be. Some want their children to be superstar athletes, while others want the next Beethoven. Others want their children to be just as they are. A deaf lesbian couple wanted to have a deaf child. Their friend donated the sperm and they asked the geneticists if it were possible to create a deaf child. A few months later, the child was born as a fully deaf baby. I believe that it is wrong to intentionally harm a fetus by giving them a disability or disease. It prevents them from living a fully functional life. If a couple were to research or visit a gene therapist, and they determined if the couple were to have a male child, the child would most definitely be born with a heart defect and would only live a few years, but if they had a female child that she would be perfectly healthy, then it is okay to provide the family security by enabling them to have a female child. By doing this, they are preventing a disability or disease. If the couple has four boys and intentionally says Ã¢â¬Å" If I am having a male, I want an abortion. Ã¢â¬ then that is completely immoral. In one book, Choosing Children, It asks the question: Ã¢â¬Å"People use antenatal or pre-implantation genetic diagnosis to have a child without disability. Is this a form of eugenics? Is it a part of a slide toward what the NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s did? Ã¢â¬ . I believe that it is a form of eugenics. We are bettering the society by providing fully functional human beings. NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s werenÃ¢â¬â¢t trying to prevent a disease or disability, they were worried about the physical features of the Jewish descent. Another book, Disability and Genetic Choice, asked if it were okay to have a Down Syndrome test. I believe that it is okay to have the testing as long as it is not the determining factor in terminating a pregnancy. This gives the parent(s) a chance to prepare themselves and be educated or give them a chance to arrange an adoption. I draw the line of designing babies at preventing disability. It is unnecessary to chose a babies hair or eye color. Just because they have a certain hair or eye color does not mean that they will be treated or act differently in society. Every genetic change has a downside, so while creating a child that is an athlete by making their uscles work harder, it is causing their heart to weaken a lot faster than someone who was not Ã¢â¬Å"designedÃ¢â¬ . Genetically Ã¢â¬Å"strengtheningÃ¢â¬ babies can provide a family with a piece of mind that they will have a healthy child. Although many people want to chose how their children may look or act, having a healthy, functioning, strong child will triumph over how they may look or act. Before one thought that he could genetically design a child, In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) came about. IVF then paved the way for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and preimplantation genetic selection (PGS). PGD is the process in which the doctors screen the embryos to see if any genetic disorders are present. Many of the disorders that are screened are life changing, disabling conditions. PGS is the process in which they Ã¢â¬Å"hand pickÃ¢â¬ the embryo without any genetic disorders and implant it back into the mother. This is the first red flag many people see in how genetically designed babies came about. This may be the only (mostly) uncontroversial part of genetics and IVF. The only ones who criticize this are those who believe that life starts at contraception. I believe that this is okay to do since it promotes bettering ones life, but this is where the line should be drawn. Another technique that is often used along with this is gender selection. The only reason I believe that it is morally correct to choose a babyÃ¢â¬â¢s gender is preventing disease. For example, if all the women in the family die from breast cancer, or cervical cancer by the age of 40, then it is morally acceptable to want to increase the chances of having a male child. If the only reason one wants to have a certain gendered child is for convenience then it is unacceptable. Also along these lines comes having a child to better another childÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Like in the book, My Sisters Keeper, the older sister was dying from a rare cancer, and the parents only choice to keep her alive was to have another child to use as Ã¢â¬Å"spare partsÃ¢â¬ . I believe that this is done with good intention, but it is not ethical. An article, Designer Babies: Eugenics Repackaged or Consumer Options, discusses one child being sick and his brother gave him his red blood cells before he was even born, and the sick brother was cured. They questioned this process: Ã¢â¬Å"Is this the beginning of a slippery slope toward Ã¢â¬Å"designerÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"spare partsÃ¢â¬ babies, or is the result that there are now two happy, healthy children instead of one very sick child a justification to pursue and continue procedures such as this one? Ã¢â¬ . This is the exact question I would expect anyone to ask. Although there are miracles, and high percentage rates that if a child would receive particular Ã¢â¬Å"partsÃ¢â¬ from a sibling then they can be cured, but there are mistakes and the unfortunate occasions where it does not work. This puts the healthy child at risk and causes them to go through unnecessary pain. I believe that the risks may outweigh the benefits in many cases. The child conceived or Ã¢â¬Å"designedÃ¢â¬ to better the other childÃ¢â¬â¢s life is just as much human as the sick `child, therefore, it is their human right that they shall be treated just as any other human being. The other ethical position would likely believe that it is the parents choice to do as they please, in means, to their children. The article The art of medicine: Designer Babies: choosing our childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s genes, discusses the absurdity of the parents to not want the best for their children. This is shown in the following statement from the article: Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ ¦. That is exactly what parents are supposed to do. To get our children to be healthy, well mannered, intellectually curious, and well behaved, we control what they eat, have them vaccinated, teach them manners, read to them, and discipline them when they misbehave. It would be absurd for a parent to say, I never attempt to influence my childrens development. I just love them for who they are. Thus, it is not influencing our childrens traits that is objectionable, but rather the means to accomplish this, that is, choosing their genes. Ã¢â¬ . This statement is true, in fact, its absolutely correct for one to think in this manner. But it is the lengths that parents go to ensure that their child will be perfect that is unethical. Although parents should shape their childÃ¢â¬â¢s live to be well behaved, healthy, and curious, it is up to the children to decide who they would like to be, and not be predisposed to be something in particular. The topic is so controversial, the same article that believes it is ethical to genetically design babies, The art of medicine: Designer Babies: choosing our childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s genes stated that: Ã¢â¬Å"A more serious objection stems from the idea that people who want to choose, in advance, the traits their child will have, and are willing to spend so much money to get a child with certain traits, demonstrate a kind of desire for perfectionism that seems incompatible with being a good parent. An insistence on having a child of a certain sort, whether a musician or an athlete or a politician, amounts to parental tyranny. Ã¢â¬ . This is also true, the idea that a parent would spend significant amounts of money to sustain perfection is ridiculous. Parents have the right to want their children to be almost Ã¢â¬Å"perfectÃ¢â¬ but it is their job to teach them the right way to live. By spending all of their money to ensure perfection, they are almost cheating at being a parent. Another objection to Ã¢â¬Å"designer babiesÃ¢â¬ would be genetically designing perfect children can create a social gap in society. The art of medicine: Designer Babies: choosing our childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s genes stated that: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦this would exacerbate social differences and the gap between rich and poor. I seriously doubt that genetic interventions would have more of an influence than existing causes of inequality, such as rotten neighborhoods and lousy schools. In any event, prebirth genetic enhancement could be used to combat social inequality, by giving children from disadvantaged backgrounds a leg up. Ã¢â¬ . How would you tell a child the reason they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t as smart or as attractive as some of the other children is that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have special enough blood or genes? There is already enough separation in our society. Not only rich and poor, but jocks, musicians, geeks, race, sexuality and many other groups also exist in schools. How would one like to hear of one of the new cliches in school, the Ã¢â¬Å"enhanced childrenÃ¢â¬ ? I canÃ¢â¬â¢t imagine how it would feel to be one of the children whose parents couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to have them Ã¢â¬Å"custom madeÃ¢â¬ . Eventually weak and poor individuals would be terminated using this new technology. Weak children would all eventually be used as spare parts to the sick children that have been genetically designed. Parents would have children just to benefit an already existing child, and once the child was cured, the spare parts child would not have any use. Parenting would also be a thing of the past. Parents wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to worry about teaching their children the correct ways to function in society, their children would already be predisposed to be perfect and act the correct ways. Instead of moving forward in society and technology, technically we are reverting back to the days of Hitler. Hitler terminated all the individuals that he believed were lesser human beings. The act of Hitler terminating Jewish descent individuals and the act of genetically designing babies is all in the search for perfection -the perfect human being.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Learning Teaching And Assessing The author will discuss issues relating to assessment in the clinical area including areas for development and improvement. The assessment under consideration is A Safeguarding Children Induction Handbook (Nottinghamshire Community Health 2009). This is a competency based induction framework and is designed to be undertaken by all new staff who will have regular contact with children and families (appendix 3). It is the responsibility of managers to ensure that staff will have the opportunity to achieve and maintain the competencies. The Primary Care Trust (PCT ) intends that use of this framework will meet statutory requirements to safeguard children (Nottinghamshire Community Health 2009). . Practice teachers were directed to facilitate this programme for Specialist community public health nursing (SCPHN) students. Assessment is the means by which learners are graded, failed or passed fit for practice (Quinn and Hughes 2007). Assessment in practice provides the grounding to ascertain if a learner is ready to move on or can demonstrate competence. This is needed in order to protect the public. Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) directs that SCPHN courses are balanced with 50% of learning in practice. Practice teachers are responsible for assessing students in public health practice. The portfolio is used to show evidence of achievement in practice. NMC (2008) advises portfolios are a method of evaluation suitable to collect information about a students competence to practice. Portfolios can demonstrate learning, by experience, reflection, personal and professional development and the students must cross reference all work to demonstrate achievement of NMC Standards of proficiency for SCPH nurses. Portfolio marking can be subjective and experience suggests students are not always clear what is n eeded to compile them. Calman et al (2002) suggested clinical assessment has relied on one practitioner observing and reporting on another which runs the risk of bias. As a student practice teacher the author has found this trying. There have been difficulties in achieving supervision due to a demanding caseload. A practice teacher mentor located at some distance has added to the challenge. The student and student practice teacher have benefited from time with university tutorial staff. In order to maintain good assessment processes careful allocation of mentors would be beneficial in future. Price (2007) and Gopee et al (2004) suggest that heavy workload of mentors and practice teachers may hinder learning; however teaching frameworks such as this one can help. Price (2007) suggests that knowing and being able to demonstrate knowledge are not enough to define fitness for practice. Practitioners should be assessed on consistency of accomplishments. Thus placements which take place o ver a long period are well set to meet those needs .The SCPHN student takes place over one academic year with a one to one practice teacher and student relationship. The author as a new practice teacher has found this very rewarding but also a fine balance between meeting the demands of student, clients and her own studies. Duffy (2004) in a report concerning mentors failing to fail students made recommendations. In order to identify any weaknesses in clinical practice mentors should work closely and habitually with students in order to make precise and honest assessments. As a trainee practice teacher the author has felt poorly prepared for assessment of students and though previous mentorship experience has proved useful it was very different. Closer work with a practice teacher mentor would be beneficial and the author has taken steps to address this. Peer support has proved invaluable and shared experience has been a reassuring factor. It is envisaged that the safeguarding induction programme will be part of portfolio evidence for student and practice teacher (appendix 3). It is the responsibility of the managers to evaluate which level of competency should be achieved. A problem based learning approach was considered to provide formative assessment. The NMC (2006) acknowledges that while the practice teacher will make summative assessments there is value in other mentors being involved in formative assessment. In practice other mentors have not been available due to staff sickness. Ousey (2003) found that problem based methods may promote learning as students felt involved and learn knowledge in context. Unfortunately the group identified to take part in this were not able to commit to regular meetings .Student anxiety about working with an unknown group was also a factor. The practice teacher was able to reassure the student that formative assessment was to provide the student with information about progress and tailor teaching to her needs (Quinn and Hughes 2007). Issues of equity and diversity were addressed as the course was tailored to meet an individuals needs. It seemed realistic to assume that the SCPHN student should achieve level 4 competencies, (can teach others) by the end of her course. When participating in an information evening and later first level interviews for potential CCPHN students the clear message was that the PCT intends that nurses with this level of qualification will be team leaders (Nottinghamshire Community Health 2008). Problem based learning can be a very supportive process and has the value of shared expertise (Price 1999). With future students and new starters better preparation should make this possible The safeguarding handbook does not make clear if there is a time limit set to achieve outcomes however they are based on recommendations from a national intercollegiate report (Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health 2006). Competency based assessment such as these rely on the assessor having the skills and knowledge to effectively monitor learning. The competency framework in question was delegated to new practice teachers with little preparatory training and this has resulted in needing to seek guidance form safeguarding nurses. This could have been avoided with better preparation. Use of the safeguarding induction handbook has proved useful tool to direct specific learning. This however was fixed by the needs of the PCT in order to meet national safeguarding directives. Its content is clearly and carefully designed but like all competency based assessment it relies on the assessors objectivity. It is described as an induction framework which implies it is for new starters only. This is confused by guidance notes which imply it is to be used to maintain staff competence. There are no clear timescales for achievement, that and the level to be achieved relies on individual managers. This may cause problems with equity of competence. Evaluation suggests this is a work in progress .The author recommends that new practice teachers and managers should have further training and feed back should be given to the development group for the annual review.
Organisational Change Management Effects On Employees Management Essay This research is on the study of the effects of organisational change management on its employees. The importance of this research is to help management in different organisations to see the effect of organisational change management on their employees, how employees view management in handling organisational change and how management can be more effective in achieving their goals and objectives. The methodology applied in this research is carrying out a survey on employees views on organisational change management with the use of questionnaires. At the end of this research, I have been able to make management to see the effects of organisational change management on its employees and how to manage it effectively. Also employees have the opportunity to change some of their set minds about management for organisational goals and objectives to be achieved irrespective of the rapid organisational change in todays business environment. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In todays dynamic business world, change remains a constant factor in every organisation irrespective of their sizes or years of existence. Change means the alteration of status quo or making things different. The constant pace of change in the 21st century business environment is accelerating extremely very fast. It is easier for machines to easily adapt to change in command but human composition does not find the adjustment such easy that is why it becomes a very sensitive issue in the organization. Change can then be said to be a single important factor in the organization. Since change is a constant and sensitive factor in every organisation therefore it becomes imperative to understand what an organisational change is, what provokes an organisational change, reaction to organisational changes and how best it can be managed to achieve organisational goals and objectives efficiently. ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE Organisational change was referred to by Van de Ven Poole, 1995, as an empirical observation of difference in form, quality of state over time in an organizational entity, (Van de Ven Poole, 1995, p. 512). An organizational entity can be an individuals job, a work group, a strategy for the organization, a product or service, or the overall organization. The Organisational entity goes through different processes in response to a strategic reorientation, restructure, change in management, merger or acquisition or the development of new goals and objectives of the organisation. Organisational change can also be referred to as the modification of the structure or process of a system within an organisation. Organisational change comes in place when aligning resources and employees to an organizational goals and objectives. These employees are human and they have their needs in hierarchy as described by Abraham Maslow. In satisfying their needs employees tends to influence organisational change. Organisational change influence by the employees is relative to the structure of the organisation. An organisational structure that is informal in nature will be more affected by employees influence than the organisation that has a strong formal structure. Abraham Maslows hierarchy of needs showed in figure 1.1 shows that people needs differ. Irrespective of their of the organization goals and objectives employees like every other man in the society has hierarchal needs. They want their needs to be met by the organisation so they tend to influence change that will favour the satisfaction of their needs. Sometimes employees influence this change not considering the organisation limited resources and this lead to a reaction from the organisation either positively or negatively depending on the management view of the influence. This reaction by the organisation in response to the employee actions is also an organisational change. MORALITY, CREATIVITY, SPONTANEITY PROBLEM SOLVING LACK OF PREJUDICE SELF-ACTUALISATION ACCEPTANCE OF FACTS SELF-ESTEEM, CONFIDENCE, ACHIEVEMENT, ESTEEM RESPECT FOR OTHERS, RESPECT BY OTHERS LOVE/ BELONGING FRIENDSHIP, FAMILY, SEXUAL INTIMACY SECURITY OF BODY, OF EMPLOYMENT, OF RESOURCES SAFETY OF MORALITY, OF THE FAMILY, OF HEALTH, OF PROPERTY PHYSIOLOGY BREATHING, FOOD, WATER, SEX, SLEEP,. FIG1.1 Organisational change tends to occur when an organizational system is disturbed by some internal or external force. The result of this disturbance may be good or bad, which may affect the organization as a whole, or in parts. The degree or rate of disturbance varies based on the organisational structure of the organisation, which may affect people, structure, technology, and other elements of an organization. The changes caused by external forces on the organisation are known as reactive changes, these changes may take place in order to respond to new opportunities or to avoid threats to the organisation while those changes initiated by the management of an organisation in order to achieve the goals and objectives of the organisation are known as proactive change. Every business organisation has three major stages of development which are survival, profitability and lastly growth and expansion. In each of this stages organisation tends to manage their available resources in such a way that it can survive each stage and move to the next stage. Every organisation desires to move from their present state to a desired state and this desired state is continual. The desired state becomes continual because every organisation needs to respond to the changing customer preferences and technologies. These factors make change to be a critical aspect of effective management. 1.2 ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE MANAGEMENT Organisational change is a constant critical factor in business environment. Both the employees and the employers in organisations go through this phase of change at one time or the other. Since organisational change is inevitable, then management in organisations need to constantly monitor and respond effectively to both the internal (owner, management and employees) and external( Investors, supplier, customers, pressure groups, government, media and the general public etc.) environments of their organisations in relation to their goals and objectives. This process is described as organisational change management. Five major factors should be understood by management in monitoring and responding to organisational change. People react to change differently based their fundamental needs People resist change based on uncertainty of results People will embrace change when proposed outcomes are favourable Proposed outcome should be well defined objectively Change may need to be enforced The more management can anticipate change and either control or manage it the better for the organisation in achieving their goals and objectives. Organisational change can influence the rate of performance of organisation; this makes it important for management to have effective knowledge about it. It is found out that in todays competitive business environment, some organisations have experienced fast development while other have experience downsizing or total collapse. These results are products of organisation change management. Organisations Change agents which are the factors that influence change should not be out of management control at every instance despite the competitive pressure on management. Since organisational change is constant and dynamic, then management needs to be proactive on change management for effective development of the organisation. Although every stakeholder within and outside the organisation feels the effect of organisational change management in different degrees, this study is concentrating on organisational change management and its effects employees. The effects of organisational change management on employees are considered very important in this research because it will show the reaction of employees to management during organisational change. Employees reaction to organisational change management either consciously or unconsciously influences their rate of performance in their jobs. Their level of confidence in management handling organisational change becomes a notable factor in their rate of performance. Management needs to know how to strike the balance between employees views and achieving their organisational goals and objective during on-going organisational change. Management cannot always attend to employees need but they should provide strategic means in reacting to their needs and not necessa rily manipulating them. Management should not only see employees just as their working tools in achieving their goals and objectives but they should see them as the most vital and delicate resources of their organisation. Definitely employees rate of performance have greater influence on the rate at which organisations achieve their goals and objectives. Improving their performance level during organisational change becomes a test of effective management. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Coetsee (1999) states managements ability to achieve maximum benefits from change depends in part on how effectively they create and maintain a climate that minimizes resistant behaviour and encourages acceptance and support (p. 205). In todays dynamic and competitive business environment, organisations are required to respond effectively to continuous change or collapse if not careful. That was why Coetsee 1999 was interested in describing management ability in achieving maximum benefit from change. Inability for management to effectively maximise benefits from changing market place as led many organisations that were listed among the fortune 500 in the 1980s and 1990s no longer in business (Beer Nohria, 2000). There are different reasons that generate organisational change; examples are government policy, technology, merger and acquisition, strategic refocusing and market volatility etc. Employees are aware that they mostly recipient of the effect of change when it goes wrong. This wrong feeling initiates fear, frustration, lack of concentration and resistance to any form of change. Therefore the effects of organisational change on employees need to be assessed objectively before initiating it. Literature reveals that, change is a source of feeling of threats, uncertainty, frustration, alienation and anxiety (Ashford 1998).Based on this, it is clearly seen that an organisation will be underperforming with such feelings from their employees. Employees best can never be achieved, they will be underproductive and it will negatively affect the organisation overall performance. How long will employees continue to work in this feeling of insecurity due to organisational change becomes a major question in this fast dynamic business environment we live in? They concentrate more on their own job security rather than the organisation goals and objectives. Meeting self needs becomes employees higher priority rather than organisational needs because they cannot be guaranteed by the organisation how long their individual needs can be met. Job security becomes a threat to them. In todays business environment, more organisations are involved in mergers while some go through the acquisition process. Greater numbers of employees become more insecure and uncertain about their jobs. This poses a serious threat to employees reliability to the organisation in achieving their goals and objectives. It is a natural response from the employee as defined by Abraham Maslow on mans hierarchy of needs. Security is a mans need not just a want, so employees job security is a vital need to them. That is the reason why permanent staffs are far more likely to be dedicated to their job than temporary staffs who feel their contribution to the organisation may be stopped at any time and with little or no pay off by the organisation. Effectiveness and efficiency of employees, becomes a challenge to the management in order to achieve their goals and objectives. Although job performance is not strongly linked with job satisfaction but there could be resistance and unwillingness from the employees when their working condition are poor and unattended to by the management of the organisation they work for. According to Gateway Information Services, a New York consulting firm, 70% of all change programs fail due to employee resistance. Employees seem to form an organisational culture that creates a serious resistance to change because of high level of uncertainty in their job. Zaltman and Duncan, 1974 define resistance to change as any conduct that serves to maintain the status quo in the face of pressure to alter the status quo. The act of resistance to change described by Zaltman and Duncan, 1974 now becomes vivid the more, as long as level of uncertainties increases for the employee before and during organisational change. (Dent Goldberg, 1999) also define resistance to change as employees are not wholeheartedly embracing a change that management wants to implement. The effect and counter effect of organisational change management on employees can be a test of effectiveness and efficiency of management. Management needs to effectively manage organisational change. CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY AND ANALYSIS 3.1 INTRODUCTION In previous chapters, it is described that organisational change remains constant in every organisation and the rate of this change in todays business environment is very rapid. Many factors have been attached to the rapid occurrence of organisational change ranging from customers needs, technology, government policy, market flexibility, acquisition and mergers etc. Every stake holder in the organisation is affected one way or the other by the effect of this change. This prompts for an effective organisational change management. Effective organisational change management can then be assessed by degree at which management maximise the benefits and minimise the demerits of organisational change in achieving the goals and objectives of the organisation. Understanding that employees are active part of any organisation stakeholders, this research in this chapter takes a critical analysis on the effect of organisational change management on its employees. 3.2 RESEARCH METHOD In carrying out this project on the effect of organisational change management on its employees, the descriptive research method is used. This method is used because descriptive method collates, test and validate data. Description emerges following creative exploration, and serves to organize the findings in order to fit them with explanations, and then test or validate those explanations (Krathwohl, 1993). Types of research that can be categorized as descriptive are Surveys (questionnaires, Delphi method, interviews, normative), case studies, job analyses, documentary analysis and developmental studies. The questionnaire was the type of descriptive method use in this project. It is used because of its response objectivity which base on the order of the systematised format of the questionnaire. It is also use because it gives opportunity to access information from people, who are free to express themselves and not time bound like interview or experiment. In guarding against sources error the four major potential errors were considered. These are sampling error, non-coverage error, non-response error, and measurement error Any one of these sources of error may make the survey results unacceptable (Groves, 1989; Salant and Dillman, 1994; Dillman, 1991, 1999).Ã Sampling error was defined as the degree to which the results from the sample deviate from those that would be obtained from the entire population, because of random error in the selection of respondent and the corresponding reduction in reliability (Alreck, 454). This was guarded against by making sure that the respondents are carefully chosen base on location which is their offices and dealing with the human resources department foe support. Respondents were given a good time before collection to guard against bias. Non-response error occurs when the survey fails to get a response to one, or possibly all, of the questions, (http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=1835).Ã This error was prevented by making the survey questions short and non confrontational. Respondents privacy was also assured to allow their views to be expressed freely without any restrictions or fear of personal details. Non coverage error which occurs from exclusion of some units or entire section from the survey was prevented by giving equal chance to both new and old employees, although employees years of experience were considered in the survey in range forms. Measurement error is the real variation from the true score, and includes both random error and systematic error, (http://changingminds.org/explanations/research/measurement/measurement_error.htm). This was prevented by proper collection and collation process to eliminate data loss. Computations of response were repeated at different times to reduce any error in the measurement process. For easy calibration likert scale was introduced with numerical value. 3.2.1 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN The questionnaire is designed to meet the aim of this research. Different standardised questionnaire in relation to employees view to organisational change and employee satisfaction were used. The questionnaire was also designed considering factors that influence the acceptance or resistance of organisational change by employees discussed in earlier chapters. The questionnaire is designed not concentrating on the sex of employees, either female or male, since the objective of the research was not concentrating on the effects of organisational change management on a particular gender. This was also done in the design to eliminate every form of bias perception from the respondents. The questionnaire is designed with equal representation for employees irrespective of their years of employment. The questionnaire consists of questions that directly address the aim of the research. That makes it short and prÃ ©cised in designed. It is designed in order to increase the response rate. The questions in the questionnaire are closed ended questions in likert scale Strongly Disagree, Disagree, Neither Agree nor Disagree, Agree, and Strongly Agree. The proposed answers were also graded with Strongly Disagree 5, Disagree 4, Neither Agree nor Disagree 3, Agree 2, and Strongly Agree 1. This was done for easy computation of data results from respondents. The closed ended questionnaire was used because it is easy to answer, easy to decode and timely. The questions began with comfortable non-threatening questions in order to make them welcoming for the respondents. It is designed to be interesting to the respondents and still goal oriented. The printouts are clear enough for easy reading and questions were written in lower case and instructions in upper case. The questionnaires were pilot with colleagues at work, and project coordinator to assess its effectiveness in checking how long it takes to complete the questions, clarity of instructions, elimination of excessive vocabulary for easy understanding and elimination of non goal oriented questions. The average time to complete the questionnaire was five minutes. It specifically designed with such a little time frame because the respondents are suppose busy people and the value of their time if high importance to them and their employers. The questionnaire was divided into three parts, though not specified on it. The three parts are employees view about change, employees readiness towards change and lastly employees view about management effectiveness on organisational change management. The purpose of the first part is to understand better in employees accept not necessarily welcome change. The purpose of the second part is to have understanding about the extent employees may react to change and their readiness towards it. The purpose of the third part is to see if employees have confidence in the management of their organisations in making effective decision in respect to their welfare and organisational change management. The design of the questionnaire includes cover letters which gives concise details about the dissertation, its importance and effective guide in filling the questionnaire. The cover letter was written in simple vocabulary for easy reading purpose. On the cover letter, privacy of respondent was guaranteed and my contact address was also inclusive in case of any further question. Respondents were also informed that filling the questionnaire was optional and I would still be glad to share the result with them either they respond to the questionnaire or not if they are interested. 3.2.2 QUESTIONNAIRE DISTRIBUTION The distribution of the questionnaire was done systematically to achieve a good timely result. The distribution process was divided into two parts, individual contacts and cooperate contact. The distribution process considered employees busy hours so as not to disturb them at work therefore lunch hour was considered as a more convenient period for the distribution. Some were considered on individual bases at locations like train stations while waiting for their train, though the major distribution was during the lunch hour. The distribution to offices was done with the support of their human resources department. The employees were assured of their privacy despite the permission from their human resources department. All distribution was carried out with date of collection to facilitate the analysis of the questionnaire. Considering that response rates may be much lower than expected, follow up on the respondents was done through their contact or the human resources management department. The follow up were done by telephone calls and sending e-mails for reminder on the collection date of the distributed questionnaires. 3.2.3 QUESTIONNAIRE COLLECTION Collection of the questionnaire is an important process in this research in order to have a good result. Questionnaires were collected at specified collection date as it was noted on the covering letter from the day of distribution. The answered survey by the respondents was arranged for data input into the computer. Microsoft excel application worksheet was use for the computation of the result. QUESTIONNAIRE Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree, Disagree Strongly Disgree. Change is constant in every environment Rate of change is faster in todays business environment organisation adapts to changes quickly Employees are always comfortable for retraining Employees welcome organisational change Employees are victims of organisational change Employees concentrates more on their job than the security of their job Employees understand the organisational goals and objectives Management decisions on organisational change are effective Management respects employee view in making decision Management consider employees as co-partner in achieving organisational goals and objectives. Management communicate effectively with staff Management gives necessary training and support to enable staff to do their job more effectively Management consider employees welfare during organisational change TABLE 1.0 3.3 ANALYSIS After a successful collection of the survey from the respondents, examination of the survey was then carried out to check if the questions were answered as requested on the covering letter of the questionnaire. Two thousand five hundred and seventy five questionnaires were answered as requested out of three thousand copies that were distributed. Twenty five were answered partly so they were not considered for the analysis, they were discarded. At the end of data input, the result is shown in the table below Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree, Agree Strongly Agree. TOTAL Change is constant in every environment 0 0 40 80 2455 2575 Rate of change is faster in todays business environment 0 6 12 32 2525 2575 Organisation adapts to changes quickly 100 132 792 700 851 2575 Employees do welcome organisational change 632 1000 300 248 395 2575 Employees are always comfortable for retraining 233 355 638 549 800 2575 Employees are victims of organisational change 25 50 100 525 1875 2575 Employees concentrates more on their job than the security of their job 1235 800 320 200 20 2575 Employees understand the organisational goals and objectives 541 177 1000 325 532 2575 Management decisions on organisational change are effective 1239 800 500 30 6 2575 Management respects employee view in making decision 1555 600 325 50 45 2575 Management consider employees as co-partner in achieving organisational goals and objectives. 1234 800 400 100 41 2575 Management communicate effectively with staff 700 1235 200 600 340 2575 Management gives necessary training and support to enable staff to do their job more Effectively 532 600 500 600 343 2575 Management consider employees welfare during organisational change 1320 800 300 153 4 2575 TABLE 2.0 The analysis was divided into three parts based on the design of the questionnaire which are employees view about change, employees readiness to change and thirdly, employees view about management effectiveness on organisational change management. Percentages of response by respondents are shown below. 3.3.1 EMPLOYEES VIEW ABOUT CHANGE In the table 2.0 above, employees view on change were asked in different ways. The result collated in percentage are shown below QUESTION 1: CHANGE IS CONSTANT IN EVERY ENVIRONMENT Strongly agree = 2455/2575 *100 = 95.34% Agree = 80/2575*100 =3.11% Neither Agree nor Disagree = 40/2575 *100 = 1.55% Disagree = 0 = 0% Strongly Disagree = 0 % QUESTION 2: RATE OF CHANGE IS FASTER IN TODAYS BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT Strongly agree = 2525/2575 *100 = 98.06% Agree =32/2575*100 =1.24% Neither Agree nor Disagree = 12/2575 *100 = 0.47% Disagree = 6 = 6/2575 * 100 = 0.23% Strongly Disagree = 0 % QUESTION 3: ORGANISATIONS ADAPTS TO CHANGES QUICKLY Strongly agree = 851/2575 *100 = 33.05% Agree =792/2575*100 =30.76% Neither Agree nor Disagree = 700/2575 *100 = 27.18% Disagree = 132/2575 * 100 = 5.13% Strongly Disagree = 100 /2575*100 = 3.88% 3.3.2 EMPLOYEES READINESS TOWARDS CHANGE Analysis of employees readiness to change was accessed based on their response to the survey question that dealt with it. Their result is displayed in percentages below QUESTION 1: EMPLOYEES DO WELCOME ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE Strongly agree = 395/2575 *100 = 15.34% Agree =248/2575*100 =9.63% Neither Agree nor Disagree = 300/2575 *100 = 11.65% Disagree = 1000/2575 * 100 = 38.83% Strongly Disagree = 632/2575*100 = 24.54% QUESTION 2: EMPLOYEES ARE ALWAYS COMFORTABLE FOR RETRAINING Strongly agree = 800/2575 *100 = 31.07% Agree =549/2575*100 =21.32% Neither Agree nor Disagree = 638/2575 *100 = 24.78% Disagree = 355/2575 * 100 = 13.79% Strongly Disagree = 233/2575*100 = 9.05 QUESTION 3 EMPLOYEES ARE VICTIMS OF ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE Strongly agree = 1875/2575 *100 = 72.82% Agree =525/2575*100 =20.39% Neither Agree nor Disagree = 100/2575 *100 = 3.83% Disagree = 50/2575 * 100 = 1.94% Strongly Disagree = 25/2575*100 = 0.97 QUESTION 4: EMPLOYEES CONCENTRATES MORE ON THEIR JOB THAN THE SECURITY OF THEIR JOB Strongly agree = 20/2575 *100 = 0.78% Agree =200/2575*100 =7.77% Neither Agree nor Disagree = 320/2575 *100 = 12.43% Disagree = 800/2575 * 100 = 31.07% Strongly Disagree = 1235/2575*100 = 47.96% QUESTION 5: EMPLOYEES UNDERSTAND THE ORGANISATIONAL GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Strongly agree = 532/2575 *100 = 20.66% Agree =325/2575*100 =12.62% Neither Agree nor Disagree = 1000/2575 *100 = 38.83% Disagree = 177/2575 * 100 = 6.87% Strongly Disagree = 541/2575*100 = 21.01% 3.3.3 EMPLOYEES VIEW ABOUT MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ON ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE QUESTION 1: MANAGEMENT DECISIONS ON ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE ARE EFFECTIVE Strongly agree = 6/2575 *100 = 0.23% Agree =30/2575*100 =1.17% Neither Agree nor Disagree = 500/2575 *100 = 19.42% Disagree = 800/2575 * 100 = 31.07% Strongly Disagree = 1239/2575*100 = 48.12% QUESTION 2: MANAGEMENT RESPECTS EMPLOYEE VIEW IN MAKING DECISION Strongly agree = 45/2575 *100 = 1.75% Agree =50/2575*100 =1.94% Neither Agree nor Disagree = 325/2575 *100 = 12.62% Disagree = 600/2575 * 100 = 23.30% Strongly Disagree = 1555/2575*100 = 48.12% QUESTION 3: MANAGEMENT CONSIDER EMPLOYEES AS CO-PARTNER IN ACHIEVING ORGANISATIONAL GOALS AND OBJECTIVES. Strongly agree = 41/2575 *100 = 1.59% Agree =100/2575*100 =3.88% Neither Agree nor Disagree = 400/2575 *100 = 15.53% Disagree = 800/2575 * 100 = 31.07% Strongly Disagree = 1234/2575*100 = 47.92% QUESTION 4: MANAGEMENT COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY WITH STAFF Strongly agree = 340/2575 *100 = 13.20% Agree =600/2575*100 =23.30% Neither Agree nor Disagree = 200/2575 *100 = 7.77% Disagree = 1235/2575 * 100 = 47.96% Strongly Disagree = 700/2575*100 = 27.18% QUESTION 5: MANAGEMENT GIVES NECESSARY TRAINING AND SUPPORT TO ENABLE STAFF TO DO THEIR JOB MORE EFFECTIVELY Strongly agree = 343/2575 *100 = 13.32%
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Boom or Bust: Prohibition Coursework Was it bound to fail? A-: Study source A and B. How far do these two accounts agree and prohibition? Source a is dealing with two different sources but both about the subject which is Prohibition. Many of historians have their own opinion about it, but the main question is of these two-account show much do they agree on about Prohibition. Source A is a section of writing that was published in 1973 and was taken from a history book. They clearly state that historians disagree about what was mainly to blame for the introduction of prohibition. By 1917 twenty-three states had already had the ban instated that is stated in the source. Main possible explanations that are stated in the source are the bad influences saloons, wartime concern for preserving grain for food, feeling against the German Americans who were important in brewing and distilling and the influence of the Anti-saloon league t a time when large numbers of men were absent in the armed forces. Even though many people were against prohibition on the other hand there were many people who were for it. This is shown in the source when they state the twenty-three states had already become Ã¢â¬ËdryÃ¢â¬â¢. The source also states that is was mainly men this is shown when they say that the armed forces numbers were very low. The reason that there were bad feelin g between the Americans and the German Americans were because World War 1 had not taken place to long ago. The source also states that it had created the biggest criminal boom in American history and perhaps in all modern history. Ã¢â¬Å"No earlier law had gone against the daily customs of so many Americans.Ã¢â¬ This last sentence of the source is very important because it sums everything into one line and I know that the source agreed with the key question because of that sentence. Source B is taken from a history book as well but was published in 1979. This source explains more what happened after prohibition had come into law. The source tells us about the organisations that were supporting the ban on alcohol such as the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Christian Temperance union and the Anti saloon league. Both of these organisations wanted to put an end to alcholism.they did this by putting pressure on congress to ban the use of grain for either brewing or distilling.
Friday, July 19, 2019
America has been involved in the cold war for years. The fear of communism is ruining lives. The country moves closer and closer to the Korean war. Joseph HellerÃ¢â¬â¢s Catch 22 is published. 1963- College students are seen wearing army fatigues with "Yossarian" name tags. Reports are being made about a "Heller Cult". Bumper stickers are manufactured which read, "Better Yossarian then Rotarian". The phrase "Catch 22" has surfaced meaning a "no win situation" it is now an excepted word in the English dictionary. Such a dramatic change in opinion from the earlier, Pro-war society, it is obvious that Catch 22 had some impact on the anti-war movement of the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s-1970Ã¢â¬â¢s. Not to say the book was the one reason the movement started, It was certainly a catalyst. A protest novel, HellerÃ¢â¬â¢s story portrays the absurdity of bureaucracy, the stupidity of war, and the power they both have to crush the human spirit. Heller us es a war zone setting, to satirise society at large. He compares the commanding officers to Incompetent businessmen. "DonÃ¢â¬â¢t mumble, and mumble "sir" when you do, and donÃ¢â¬â¢t interrupt, and say "sir" when you do." Desiring promotion over every thing else, Colonel Cathcart keeps raising the number of missions the men of his squadron must fly. Even though the army says they need fly only forty, a bureaucratic trap called "Catch 22" says they canÃ¢â¬â¢t go home at forty because they must obey their commanding officers. Much like the work place, the men are forced to go through endless amounts of red tape, which hardly gets them anywhere. Yossarian tries to pretend he is crazy to get out of fighting. He signs "Washington Irving" on letters he censors, and walks around naked for a couple of days. If someone is crazy he needs only ask and he can be dismissed from duty. Yet, one would be crazy to fly, and only a sane person wou ld ask to stop, Yossarian is therefore not crazy and is ordered to continue flying his missions. Heller also demonstrates the effect war has on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. All of the pilotÃ¢â¬â¢s are coping (except Yossarian) with the war in different waysÃ¢â¬ ¦The daredevil pilot, McWatt, loves to buzz his friend YossarianÃ¢â¬â¢s tent. Mess officer Milo Minderbender turns his job into an international black-market food syndicate. Lead Bombardier Havermeyer Zeros in on targetÃ¢â¬â¢s, no matter how much anti-aircraft peppers his plane.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Examing the Conclusion of Beowulf Ã Ã Endings in books are the culmination of many important events. Sometimes they are joyous and pleasant, where the conflict of the novel is resolved and everyone lives happily ever after. And other times, endings can be sad, lamentable, and downright evil. Beowulf's ending shows a sharp contrast between both types of endings. His character, along with the tragic events in the book, allowed for this ambiguous ending. But, in my opinion and when thought about closely, Beowulf, ends in an extremely terrible fashion. Ã Beowulf, Ecgtheow's son, is strong in mind and body. He is born a true hero.. He backs up his extraordinary feats with a powerful sense of social responsibility and morality. He is also engaging and humane. These good qualities often blind readers to his other traits. He, in my opinion, is a selfish, power hungry, and attention grabbing fool. He never asks for help even when he needs it, he prefers recognition rather than doing the right thing, and he puts others at danger to prove himself worthy. As a young man, he is a bit wild and reckless, who swims for seven days in the open sea to satisfy a foolish wager. Beowulf later admits that it was his false pride that made him accept the bet. When Hrothgar asks Beowulf to fight Grendel, he does not hesitate. His only request is that if he is killed, his armor should be returned to Hygelac, for he is loyal to the King of Geatland. Once Grendel has been wounded and chased away, Beowulf agrees to fight Grendel's mother, who want s vengeance for her son's death. When he succeeds in killing her, he severs her head and the head of the dead Grendel to show as a symbol of his success and bravery. At a young age, Beowulf was strong. He was physically and mentally able to fight Grendel and Grendel's mother. He triumphed over them and won great fame. But this all went straight to his head. 50 years later, as an old and weak man, he puts himself at risk once again to fight the dragon. His mental and physical stamina are nowhere near his old self, but being stubborn, he fights the dragon anyway.
First printed in The North Briton Review, August, 1848, as part of a review of The Works of Alexander Pope, ed. W. Roscoe, 1847. What is it that we mean by literature? Popularly, and amongst the thoughtless, it is held to include everything that is printed in a book. Little logic is required to disturb that definition. The most thoughtless person is easily made aware that in the idea of literature one essential element is, ? some relation to a general and common interest of man, so that what applies only to a local or professional or merely personal interest, even though presenting itself in the shape of a book, will not belong to literature. So far the definition is easily narrowed; and it is as easily expanded. For not only is much that takes a station in books not literature, but, inversely, much that really is literature never reaches a station in books. The weekly sermons of Christendom, that vast pulpit literature which acts so extensively upon the popular mind? to warn, to uphold, to renew, to comfort, to alarm? does not attain the sanctuary of libraries In the ten-thousandth part of its extent. The drama as for instance the finest of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s plays in England and all leading Athenian plays in the noontide of the Attic stage, operated as a literature on the public mind, and were (according to the strictest letter of that term) published through the audiences that witnessed their representation, some time before they were published as things to be read: and they were published in this scenical mode of publication with much more effect than they could have had as books during ages of costly copying or of costly printing. Books, therefore, do not suggest an idea co-extensive and interchangeable with the idea of literature, since much literature, scenic, forensic, or didactic (as from lectures and public orators), may never come into books, and much that does come into books may connect itself with no literary interest. But a far more important correction, applicable to the common vague idea of literature, is to be sought, not so much in a better definition of literature, as in a sharper distinction of the two functions which it fulfils. In that great social organ which, collectively, we callÃ literature, there may be distinguished two separate offices, that may blend and often do so, but capable, severally, of a severe insulation, and naturally fitted for reciprocal repulsion. There is, first, the literature of knowledge, and secondly, the literature of power. The function of the first is to teach; the function of the second is to move: the first is a rudder; the second an oar or a sail. The first speaks to the mere discursive understanding; the second speaks ultimately, it may happen, to the higher understanding, or reason, but always through affections of pleasure and sympathy. Remotely it may travel towards an object seated in what Lord Bacon calls dry light; but proximately it does and must operate? else it ceases to be a literature of power-on and through that humid light which clothes itself in the mists and glittering iris of human passions, desires, and genial emotions. Men have so little reflected on the higher functions of literature as to find it a paradox if one should describe it as a mean or subordinate purpose of books to give information. But this is a paradox only in the sense which makes it honorable to be paradoxical. Whenever we talk in ordinary language of seeking information or gaining knowledge, we understand the words as connected with something of absolute novelty. But it is the grandeur of all truth which can occupy a very high place in human interests that it is never absolutely novel to the meanest of minds: it exists eternally, by way of germ or latent principle, in the lowest as in the highest, needing to be developed but never to be planted. To be capable of transplantation is the immediate criterion of a truth that ranges on a lower scale. Besides which, there is a rarer thing than truth, namely, power, or deep sympathy with truth. What is the effect, for instance, upon society, of children? By the pity, by the tenderness, and by the peculiar modes of admiration, which connect themselves with the helplessness, with the innocence, and with the simplicity of children, not only are the primal affections strengthened and continually renewed, but the qualities which are dearest in the sight of heaven-the frailty, for instance, which appeals to forbearance, the innocence which symbolizes the heavenly, and the simplicity which is most alien from the worldly-are kept up in perpetual remembrance, and their ideals are continually refreshed. A purpose of the same nature is answered by the higher literature, viz. , the literature of power. What do you learn from Paradise Lost? Nothing at all. What do you learn from a cookery-book? Something new, something that you did not know before, in every paragraph. But would you therefore put the wretched cookery-book on a higher level of estimation than the divine poem? What you owe to Milton is not any knowledge, of which a million separate items are still but a million of advancing steps on the same earthly level; what you owe is power, that is, exercise and expansion to your own latent capacity of sympathy with the infinite, where every pulse and each separate influx is a step upwards, a step ascending as upon a JacobÃ¢â¬â¢s ladders from earth to mysterious altitudes above the earth. All the steps of knowledge, from first to last, carry you further on the same plane, but could never raise you one foot above your ancient level of earth; whereas the very first step in power is a flight, is an ascending movement into another element where earth is forgotten. Were it not that human sensibilities are ventilated and continually called out into exercise by the great phenomena of infancy, or of real life as it moves through chance and change, or of literature as it recombines these elements in the mimicries of poetry, romance, etc., it is certain that, like any animal power or muscular energy falling into disuse, all such sensibilities would gradually droop and dwindle. It is in relation to these great moral capacities of man that the literature of power, as contradistinguished from that of knowledge, lives and has its field of action. It is concerned with what is highest in man; for the Scriptures themselves never condescended to deal by suggestion or cooperation with the mere discursive understanding: when speaking of man in his intellectual capacity, the Scriptures speak not of the understanding, but of Ã¢â¬Å"the understanding heart, Ã¢â¬Å"?Ã making the heart, i. e. , the great intuitive (or non-discursive) organ, to be the interchangeable formula for man in his highest state of capacity for the infinite. Tragedy, romance, fairy tale, or epopee, all alike restore to manÃ¢â¬â¢s mind the ideals of justice, of hope, of truth, of mercy, of retribution, which else (left to the support of daily life in its realities) would languish for want of sufficient illustration. What is meant, for instance, by poetic justice? ?It does not mean a justice that differs by its object from the ordinary justice of human jurisprudence; for then it must be confessedly a very bad kind of justice; but it means a justice that differs, from common forensic justice by the degree in which it attains its object, a justice that is more omnipotent over its own ends, as dealing? not with the refractory elements of earthly life, but with the elements of its own creation, and with materials flexible to its own purest preconceptions. It is certain that, were it not for the Literature of Power, these ideals would often remain amongst us as mere arid notional forms; whereas, by the creative forces of man put forth in literature, they gain a vernal life of restoration, and germinate into vital activities. The commonest novel, by moving in alliance with human fears and hopes, with human instincts of wrong and right, sustains and quickens those affections. Calling them into action, it rescues them. from torpor. And hence the preeminency, over all authors that merely teach of the meanest that moves, or that teaches, if at all, indirectly by moving. The very highest work that has ever existed in the literature of Knowledge is but a provisional work: a book upon trial and sufferance, and quamdiu bene se gesserit. Let its teaching be even partially revised, let it be but expanded, ? nay, even let its teaching be but placed in a better order, ? and instantly it is superseded. Whereas the feeblest works in the Literature of Power, surviving at all, survive as finished and unalterable amongst men. For instance, the Principia of Sir Isaac Newton was a book militant on earth from the first. In all stages of its progress it would have to fight for its existence: 1st as regards absolute truth; idly, when that combat was over, as regards its form or mode of presenting the truth. And as soon as a La Place, or anybody else, builds higher upon the foundations laid by this book, effectually he throws it out of the sunshine into decay and darkness; by weapons won from this book he superannuates and destroys this book, so that soon the name of Newton remains as a mere nominis umbra,Ã¢â¬ but his book, as a living power, has transmigrated into other forms. Now, on the contrary, the iliad, the Prometheus of Aeschylus, the Othello or King Lear, the Hamlet or Macbeth, and the Paradise Lost are not militant but triumphant forever as long as the languages exist in which they speak or can be taught to speak. They never can transmigrate into new incarnations. To reproduce these in new forms, or variations, even if in some things they should be improved, would be to plagiarize. A good steam engine is properly superseded by a better. But one lovely pastoral valley is not superseded by another, nor a statue of Praxiteles by a statue of Michael Angelo. These things are separated not byÃ imparity, but by disparity. They are not thought of as unequal under the same standard, but as different in kind, and, if otherwise equal, as equal under a different standard. Human works of immortal beauty and works of nature in one respect stand on the same footing: they never absolutely repeat each other, never approach so near as not to differ; and they differ not as better and worse, or simply by more and less: they differ by undecipherable and incommunicable differences, that cannot be caught by mimicries, that cannot be reflected in the mirror of copies, that cannot become ponderable in the scales of vulgar comparison.
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
The history of the conclusion punishment was extensively discussed by the authoritative Court in mess vs. Echegaray.1 As early 1886, with child(p) punishment had entered the Philippine legal arranging through the grey-haired penal Code, which was a modified version of the Spanish punishable Code of 1870. The Revised penal Code, which was oblige on 1 January 1932, provided for the terminal penalization in specified crimes under specific circumstances. Under the Revised penal Code, closing is the penalisation for the crimes of t background, correspondence with the enemy during multiplication of war, qualified piracy, parricide, murder, infanticide, kidnapping, misdemeanour with homicide or with the engagement of deadly weapon or by two or much persons egressing in insanity, robbery with homicide, and arson resulting in finis. The inclination of capital offenses lengthened as the general assembly responded to the emergencies of the times.In 1941, Commonwealth m ove (C.A.) nary(prenominal) 616 added espionage to the list. In the 1950s, at the height of the Huk confusion, the organization enacted Republic scrap (R.A.) zero(prenominal) 1700, other known as the Anti-Subversion Law, which carried the demolition penalization for leaders of the rebellion. From 1971 to 1972, more capital offenses were created by more laws, among them, the Anti-Hijacking Law, the Dangerous Drugs Act, and the Anti-Carnapping Law. During martial law, presidential Decree (P.D.) No. 1866 was enacted penalizing with wipeout, among others, crimes involving homicide affiliated with an unlicensed firearm. In the aftermath of the 1986 revolution that dismantle the Marcos regime and led to the nullification of the 1973 Constitution, a new constitution was drafted and ratified.The 1987 Constitution provides in Article III, variance 19 (1) that profuse fines sh alone not be impose, nor cruel, contaminating or inhuman punishment inflicted. neither shall expirat ion penalisation be imposed, unless, for stimulate reasons involving flagitious crimes, the relation hereafter provides for it. both finale penalty already imposed shall be reduced to reclusion perpetua. Congress passed Republic Act No. 7659 (en surnamed An Act to Impose the termination penalization on Certain heinous Crimes, Amending for that Purpose the Revised penal Code, as Amended, other Special Penal Laws, and for Other Purposes), which took effect on 31 celestial latitude 1993. editIllustrative crusadesAs a result of the abolition of the remnant penalty, existing penalties for death were reduced to reclusion perpetua, within the orifice of tidings. here(predicate) are illustrative cases The case of People of the Philippines vs. Quiachon3 involves an accused who screw upd his 8-year old daughter, a deaf-mute. Under Article 266-B of the Revised Penal Code, the imposable penalty should shake off been death. With the abolition of the finis Penalty, however, the penalty was reduced to reclusion perpetua, without the surmise of liberate under the Indeterminate fourth dimension Law. The case of People of the Philippines vs. Santos4 involves the rape of a 5-year old child.The accused was meted the penalty of death because rape committed against a child under seven (7) years old is a dastardly and repulsive crime which merits no less than the fraud of capital punishment under Article 266-B of the Revised Penal Code. The sentence was also reduced to reclusion perpetua, without the possibility of parole. The case of People vs. Salome5 involves a rape of a 13-year old girl (who got pregnant), committed in a dwelling and with the instigate of a bladed weapon. The imposable penalty should have been death, but with the abolition of the Death Penalty, the Supreme Court reduced the penalty toreclusion perpetua, without the possibility of parole.The case of People of the Philippines vs. Tubongbanua6 involves the murder of a victim who suffered 18 stab wounds which were all directed to her chest, heart and lungs. Considering the existence of the loss circumstance of evident premeditation and the aggravate circumstances of dwelling, and taking advantage of maestro strength without any mitigating circumstance, the proper imposable penalty would have been death. However, with the abolition of the death penalty law, the penalty imposed was reclusion perpetua, without the possibility ofparole. http//phbar.org/wikilaw/index.php?title=Death_Penalty_Law(1) Excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel, degrading or inhuman punishment inflicted. Neither shall death penalty be imposed, unless, for compelling reasons involving heinous crimes, the Congress hereafter provides for it. Any death penalty already imposed shall be reduced to reclusion perpetua. In mid-1987, a bill to seeking to reinstate the death penalty for 15 heinous crimes including murder, rebellion and the import or sale of require drugs was submitted in Congress. 1988In 1988, the military started lobbying for the imposition of the death penalty. Then Armed Forces of the Philippines primary(prenominal) General Fidel Ramos was prominent among those calling for the reintroduction of the death penalty for rebellion, murder and drug-trafficking. The military thrust for the restoration of the capital punishment was in the beginning against the CPP-NPA, whose offensives then included urban blackwash campaigns. Anti-death penalty groups including Amnesty International contradictory the bill, but the House of Representatives voted for restoration by 130 votes to 25. 1989Three similar bills were gravel forwards the Senate. After a bally(a) 1989 coup, President Aquino certified as imperative one of these bills on the prompting of Ramos. The give tongue to bill again proposed death penalty for rebellion, as well as for sedition, subversive activity and insurrection. 1990Ramos memorial tabletA series of naughty profile crimes during this per iod, including the murder of Eileen Sarmenta and Allan Gomez, created public mould that heinous crimes were on the rise. The Ramos administration succeeded in restoring death penalty. 1992President Fidel Ramos during his first of all fix of the Nation address declared that his administration would regard the restoration of the death penalty a legislative priority, and urged Congress to set out speedy action. 1993Republic Act No. 8177, which mandates that a death sentence shall be carried out through fatal injection, was sanctioned on March 20, 1996. Estrada administration 7 death convicts were execute during the Estrada administration before he proclaimed a moratorium on carrying into actions. 1999 Leo Echegaray, 38, was executed by lethal injection on February 5, 1999. He was the first to be executed after the Philippines restored death penalty. It was the Philippines first execution in 22 years. half dozen more men followed within the next 11 months.2000On March 24, 2000, Estrada imposed a de facto moratorium in observance of the Christian Jubilee Year. He also granted 108 Executive Clemencies to death convicts.On December 10, 2000, Human Rights Day, Estrada announced that he would commute sentences of all death convicts to look imprisonment. He expressed his proneness to certify as urgent a bill seeking a set aside of the Death Penalty Law.Arroyo administration enjoy see Gloria Arroyo on death penaltya timelineWhile the Arroyo administration has been characterized by a flip-flopping stand on death penalty, no death convict has been executed under her watch. Voting separately, the two Houses of Congress on June 6, 2006 repealed the death penalty law. Arroyo gestural Republic Act 9346 on June 24, 2006.Section 1. The imposition of the penalty of death is herewith prohibited. Accordingly, Republic Act No. viii Thousand One Hundred lxxvii (R.A. No. 8177), other known as the Act Designating Death by fatal Injection is hereby repealed. Republic Act N o. Seven Thousand Six Hundred Fifty-Nine (R.A. No. 7659), other known as the Death Penalty Law, and all other laws, executive orders and decrees, to that degree as they impose the death penalty are hereby repealed or amend accordingly.Sec. 2. In lieu of the death penalty, the interest shall be imposed.(a) the penalty of reclusion perpetua, when the law violated poses use of the nomenclature of the penalties of the Revised Penal Code or (b) the penalty of life imprisonment, when the law violated does not make use of the nomenclature of the penalties of the Revised Penal Code. Sec. 3. Person convicted of offenses punished with reclusion perpetua, or whose sentences give be reduced to reclusion perpetua, by reason of this Act, shall not be eligible for parole under Act No. 4180, otherwise known as the IndeterminateSentence Law, as amended.